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Ottoman Empire Religion


  • Architecture was completely changed due to the Muslim architects and the way they put it together.Finally trade was one of the most important activities in the empire, which was also done and changed by Muslims which traded by their own religious customs and religions.
  • There are also references to millet as "religion, confession, or rite" from 1158 to 1833 in various internal and international communications, mainly between the Ottoman Empire and non-Muslim empires.
  • The Ottomans tried to leave the choice of religion to the individual rather than imposing forced classifications.
  • When the Ottoman Empire was restored under Sultan Mehmed I, the Turkish notables, in order to deprive the sultan of the only military force he could use to resist their control, required him to abandon the kapıkulu, justifying the action on the basis of the Islamic tradition that Muslims could not be kept in slavery.
  • In the Ottoman Empire, one would find a significant Muslim population - ultimately the official religion of the empire; in addition, a large number of Greek Orthodox and a smaller number of Catholics lived within Ottoman borders; after the Protestant Reformation in the sixteenth century, one could also find Protestants within the Ottoman Empire.
  • The Ottomans allowed the "religions of the book" to be organized in millets: the Orthodox Christians or Rums, the Armenians, and the Jews.
  • This means Ottomanists need to move away from the rather essentialist view of the dhimma and the implicit assumption that because Islam treats non-Muslims according to the stipulations of the dhimma, then the Ottoman Empire, as an Islamic state, continued to follow these stipulations in exactly the same way.
  • This allowed various religions to feel safe and respected in the Ottoman Empire, creating a sense of unity through accepting differences.
  • Did the Ottomans tolerate other religions in the time period of their existence(1299-1923).

















































Ottoman Empire Armenia


  • There were the century-long Ottoman-Persian Wars between the rival empires, the battlegrounds of which ranged over Western Armenia (therefore large parts of the native lands of the Armenians), causing the region and its peoples to be passed between the Ottomans and Persians numerous times.
  • In the final analysis, the centuries of Turkish rule resulted in the utter ruin of historic Armenia, the expulsion of the Armenians from Asiatic Turkey and the permanent exile of surviving Armenians.
  • The early 20th century was a period of upheaval and trauma for the Armenian people, encompassing the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, the annexation of Armenia as a Soviet Republic, and most tragically, the Armenian Genocide, resulting in the deaths of 1.5 million Armenians and the deportation of a million more.
  • The Armenian Genocide still remains one of the most bitterly contested events in history, especially for Turkey, fiercely defensive of its Ottoman past.
  • "When the Ottomans were defeated at a major battle in the winter of 1914-15, the government saw the Armenians, who were on both sides of the Russian-Turkish frontier, as a potential 'fifth column' - a danger, an internal danger to their empire," he said.
  • Only in Constantinople (modern Istanbul and then the capital of the empire) 2,345 Armenian intellectuals were arrested and executed in the following weeks.
  • This part is usually also referred to as Western Armenia or Turkish Armenia, while Eastern Armenia (basically the Republic of Armenia today) was the part in the Russian Empire.
  • The University of Minnesota’s Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies compiled figures by province and district that show there were 2,133,190 Armenians in the empire in 1914 and only about 387,800 by 1922.
  • The Armenian community resided in the Middle East for thousands of years and was governed by various empires including the Persians, Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, Arabs, and Mongols.
  • They also claim that Russia expelled Turks from areas it conquered - and that many Muslims had also been killed and expelled in the Balkans as the Ottoman empire lost its European possessions like Greece and Bulgaria over the course of the 19th Cenutry.
  • Armenia's neighbors include Georgia, Azerbaijan, Turkey and Iran. (There are between six and seven million Armenians worldwide today and less than half live in the Republic of Armenia.)
  • He mandated that the official religion of the empire be Christianity, although in the 7th century AD all countries surrounding Armenia were Muslim.




























Ottoman Empire Borders


  • By the end of the century the Ottomans had lost the whole of Hungary and Transylvania, and the empire's central European border was back where it had been in the 16th century, at the river Danube (compare maps of central Europe 1648 and central Europe 1789 ).
  • It is telling that the secret agreement Sykes inked with his French colleague François Georges-Picot divided up the Kurdish inhabited part of the Ottoman Empire, but did so in a completely different way than the current borders do.
  • The Ottoman army continued to be an effective fighting force throughout the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, falling behind the empire's European rivals only during a long period of peace from 1740-1768.
  • Although the Ottoman Empire is not considered a European kingdom per se, Ottoman expansion had a profound impact on a continent already stunned by the calamities of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries and the Ottoman Turks must, therefore, be considered in any study of Europe in the late Middle Ages.
  • This "kingdom’ was perched precariously on the very borders of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire.
  • After four centuries united in a multinational empire under Ottoman Muslim rule, the Arabs found themselves divided into new states under the control of Britain and France.
  • The dervishes (Muslim ascetics) who were often considered heretics in other Islamic domains, took the center stage in Ottoman military affairs with their disparate followers (Muslims and Christians alike) and brotherhoods populating the rural regions bordering the Byzantine Empire.
  • It covers the crucial subject of shifting borders and crises of displacement and refugees in the Middle East from the late Ottoman period until the present day.





































Ottoman Empire Cities


  • The list of major cities conquered by the Ottoman Empire is below.
  • The second column shows the name of the city (where necessary, the Ottoman Turkish name and/or the contemporary Turkish name has also been given in parathesis), the third column shows the holder before conquest and the fourth column shows the present country.
  • The Ottoman Empire started preparing its first pilots and planes, and with the founding of the Aviation School ( Tayyare Mektebi ) in Yeşilköy on 3 July 1912, the Empire began to tutor its own flight officers.
  • The Ottoman army continued to be an effective fighting force throughout the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, falling behind the empire's European rivals only during a long period of peace from 1740-1768.
  • The Ottomans first encountered Jews in land they conquered from the Byzantine Empire.
  • From their humble beginnings as a small Turkish state in the 1300s, the Ottomans would grow to become the premier Muslim empire throughout the 15th to 19th centuries.
  • Originally one of many small Turkish states that formed in Anatolia in the 14th century, the Ottomans conquered the Byzantine Empire in 1453, established their capital in the newly renamed city Istanbul, and moved on to conquer the rest of Anatolia and much of the Balkan Peninsula.
  • The person holding the post of sharif was responsible for law and order in the holy cities and for the safety of the pilgrims; however, his resources were far from meeting all of the needs of the city.
  • After the conquest of Constantinople, Muhammad II, wishing to aggrandize the city and make it into a capital befitting a great empire, brought into it many people from the provinces.




























Ottoman Empire End


  • To that end he eliminated the last vassal princes who might have disputed his claims to be legitimate successor to the Byzantine and Seljuq dynasties, establishing direct Ottoman administration in most of the provinces throughout the empire.
  • From the middle to the end of the empire, when it was on its long slow decline to collapse, the empire faced three main rival powers that crop up again and again in Ottoman history: to the east, the Persian Safavids; to the north, the tsars of Russia; and to the west, the Habsburgs.
  • The end came just as Ottoman reforms were having their greatest success.
  • The next 200 years brought a series of military defeats for the Ottomans against the Habsburgs, the Russian empire and other foreign rivals that compelled the Turks into peace treaties that further eroded their territorial claims.
  • The destruction of this very old empire began much earlier, but the events of the Twentieth Century bear special significance for the end of the realm begun by the Turkish tribal leader Osmanli in the year 1300.
  • These ships, officially transferred to the Ottoman Navy, but effectively still under German control, attacked the Russian port of Sevastopol, thus dragging the Empire into the war on the side of the Central Powers in the Middle Eastern theater.
  • Through a series of treaties of capitulation from the 16th to the 18th cent. the Ottoman Empire gradually lost its economic independence.
  • This struggle, known as the Eastern Question, over the fate of the empire to safeguard the strategic, territorial, and commercial interests of the European Great Powers in the Ottoman domains, lasted until the end of the empire.
  • By the end of this period in 1908, the Ottoman military was somewhat modernized and professionalized according to the model of Western European Armies.
  • In the second half of the sixteenth century, there emerged a series of external and internal challenges to the classical Ottoman system, and this led to a series of crises and subsequent transformations of the empire in military, political, social, and financial institutions.




Ottoman Empire Expansion


  • The expansion of the ottoman empire BY Nacho Serantes & Alejandro Polo Index What was the ottoman empire Introduction Their conquests The battle of Lepanto The ottoman empire The Ottoman Empire began as one of a small Turkish states that emerged in Asia during the decline of the Seljuq Empire.
  • The Crimean War (1853-1856) was fought between Imperial Russia on one side and an alliance of France, the United Kingdom, the Kingdom of Sardinia, and the Ottoman Empire on the other.
  • In the 1500's the Ottoman Empire's expansion continued with the defeat of the Mamluks in Egypt and Syria in 1517, Algiers in 1518 and Hungary in 1526 and 1541.
  • He then annexed Serbia in 1439, beginning a policy of replacing the vassals with direct Ottoman rule throughout the empire.
  • Süleyman created a powerful navy under the leadership of the pirate governor of Algeria, Grand Admiral Hayruddin Barbarossa; the commander not only brought Algeria into the empire as a province whose revenues were set aside in perpetuity for support of the Ottoman navy, but also made the entire Mediterranean into an Ottoman lake.
  • During the initial Ottoman expansion the Middle East and South Eastern Europe were an "old soil" exhausted of civilizational cultivation and barbaric wars.
  • Minawi argues military and economic might took precedence over international agreements as the British and French empires moved into previously declared Ottoman spheres of influence.
  • Following World War I, during which most of the empire's territories were captured by the Allies, the Ottoman state was in complete disarray.
  • European commitments to preservation of the territorial integrity of the empire had given way to a virtual land-grab, with individual powers vying for control of the already greatly reduced Ottoman territory.








































Ottoman Empire Government


  • The Ottoman Empire developed over the centuries a complex organization of government with the Sultan as the supreme ruler of a centralized government that had an effective control of its provinces, officials and inhabitants.
  • The continued close connections of the Ottoman ruling family with the urban guilds and orders of Anatolia, many of the members of which were descendants of officials of the Great Seljuq and Il-Khanid empires, as well as the empire of the Seljuqs of Konya, provided continuity with the Islamic Turkish traditions of government.
  • Essentially, then, the Ottoman Empire had a small but elaborate government bureaucracy, made up almost entirely of Muslims, most of them of Turkish origin.
  • The Armenian Genocide was the Ottoman government's systematic extermination of its Armenian subjects.
  • The Ottoman army continued to be an effective fighting force throughout the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, falling behind the empire's European rivals only during a long period of peace from 1740-1768.
  • Let us know what’s wrong with this preview of The Government of the Ottoman Empire in the Time of Suleiman the Magnificent by Albert Howe Lybyer.
  • Without education and knowledge of how to run an empire, they still had the power to direct the government.
  • In his recent book, Partners of the Empire: The Crisis of the Ottoman Order in the Age of Revolutions, Yaycioglu traces the complex social and political changes of the period.
  • Muslim government officials, coined "Professional Muslims" by historians, were trained professionals who advised the Sultan and completed the mundane work necessary in running an empire.
  • The Ottomans barely saw out the 19th century, and when the Turkish state revived, in the 1920s under Kemal Atatrk, it did so by turning its back on almost everything the old empire had stood for.




Ottoman Empire Genocide


  • In 2005, the International Association of Genocide Scholars affirmed that scholarly evidence revealed the "Young Turk government of the Ottoman Empire began a systematic genocide of its Armenian citizens- an unarmed Christian minority population.
  • The atrocities between 1920-1922 were committed by the Nationalist Turks who seized power in the Anatolian hinterland in the final years of the Ottoman Empire and created the Turkish Republic.
  • As the Ottoman Empire suffered its first losses in the First World War, the "Young Turk" government rounded up intellectuals and political leaders from its Christian Armenian minority.
  • The Ottoman Empire was now almost entirely Muslim, and more importantly, overwhelmingly a Turkish state, i.e. the Turkey today.
  • This article considers the development of the genocide in the context of wider Ottoman demographic policies and late Ottoman history.
  • While this brutal history is most widely known in the case of the Armenian genocide, few appreciate the extent to which the Empire's Assyrian and Greek subjects suffered and died under similar policies.
  • Only this deeper distinction permits a correct understanding for other eras from the Ottoman-Russian War of 1878 up to the Armenian massacres 1894-1896, 1914 to 1918 and, briefly after the war, in the decline of the Ottoman Empire and the emergence of the Republic of Turkey.
  • On the 103rd anniversary of the Armenian Genocide, Rep. Devin Nunes took time to mark the occasion and use that word to describe the massacre of more than 1 million Armenians at the hands of the Ottoman Turks.
  • The Armenian Genocide was the centrally planned and systematically executed deportation and murder of over 2 million Christian Armenians, Greeks and Assyrians by the Ottoman Turkish Government from 1915-1923.

























Ottoman Empire History


  • The Ottoman Empire is one of the largest empires in history.
  • The Ottoman Empire (c. 1290 – 1922) provides a vivid example of durable and successful state building in world history.
  • With the emphasis that the early Ottomans placed on the ghazi lifestyle and the defense of Islam, we can begin to understand how this empire rose to the heights it reached in the 1400s and 1500s.
  • Because of bad relations between the latter Byzantine Empire and the states of western Europe as epitomized by Loukas Notaras's famous remark "Better the Sultan's turban than the Cardinal's Hat", the majority of the Orthodox population accepted Ottoman rule as preferable to Venetian rule.
  • There was reason for this ruthlessness, however; for much of its history (the most successful bit, in fact), the Ottoman dynasty flourishedruling over modern Turkey, the Balkans and most of North Africa and the Middle Eastthanks in part to the staggering violence it meted out to the highest and mightiest members of society.
  • The sultan, who had descended from Osman, the fourteenth-century founder of the dynasty, ruled the empire throughout its history.
  • In 1453, the Ottoman sultan Mehmed II extended Ottoman authority throughout Asia Minor and conquered Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire, thus destroying the last remnants of the Eastern Roman Empire.
  • The Ottoman Empire reached its peak in size and splendor under the sultan called Suleiman the Magnificent, who ruled from 1520 to 1566 and was known to the Turks as Suleiman the Law-Giver.
  • At some level the Ottomans - like the Safavid Empire or the Mughal Empire or the Ming dynasty - did bring an overarching order to a large territory, with intrusive authority.
  • Characterized as the "sick man of Europe," the relative weakening of the Ottoman Empire's military strength in the second half of the eighteenth century threatened to undermine the fragile balance of power in Europe after the Napoleonic Wars.
  • Until the 16th century the Ottoman Empire wasn't even a Muslim-majority state.
  • With his military and navy finely tuned, Suleiman led his forces in a campaign to destroy the Ottoman's Christian enemies at the edge of the Empire.
  • At the beginning of the 20th century, the power of the Ottoman Empire had been declining for several hundred years, and the Empire officially dissolved at the end of the First World War.





































Ottoman Empire Importance


  • The Ottomans were aware that when they conquered Constantinople (in essence, the Eastern Roman Empire) the titles of "emperor" and "Caesar" still had importance.
  • Manastır was a favorite of the Ottomans and considered to be one of the greatest cities of the European portion of the empire economically, politically and culturally, with such an importance bestowed upon that one of the imperial military academies and a dozen of consulates were located here.
  • Several weak sultans followed Mahmud II. This enabled top civil officials — their position in relation to the ruler now much secured, and their importance increased by their role in negotiating with the European powers on whom the empire was becoming dependent — to run the government until another strong sultan emerged.
  • The Ottoman army continued to be an effective fighting force throughout the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, falling behind the empire's European rivals only during a long period of peace from 1740-1768.
  • Learn why Sultan Suleiman I is considered one of the Ottoman Empire's most important political rulers.
  • For centuries, the empire was dreaded by Christian Europe for its formidable military might to which it owed its expansion, and it was time and again suggested that the Ottomans could only be defeated by a coalition of powers, and not by a single state.
  • Taking full advantage of its location on the borders of the Byzantine Empire that was much weakened by that time, the Ottoman state quickly grew, crossing over to the European mainland by taking the Gallipoli Castle in 1354.
  • Premodern empires in southeastern Europe and western Asia, with the Ottomans being the last in a succession of empires that controlled territories in both regions, were big territorial entities, and as such more diverse in terms of physical and human geography than the modern nation-states.










Ottoman Empire in Spanish


  • To enrich their economy, the Spanish and the Ottoman empire both captured land to control trade and took part in the slave trade.
  • This effective abandonment of the Western and Central Mediterranean by the navies of both Spain and the Ottoman Empire, combined with the gradual decline of both Venice and Genoa, led to the rise of the Barbary states, and their associated piracy.
  • The purpose of the Spanish Inquisition was to convert Jews and Muslims in Spain to the Christian faith or force them to leave the country.
  • The Ottoman and the Spanish empires certainly had their fair share of similarities and differences.
  • Sultan Bayezid II sent Kemal Reis to save the Sephardic Jews of Spain from the Spanish Inquisition in 1492 and granted them permission to settle in the Ottoman Empire.
  • As I'm reading the history of the Western Mediterranean about this period, I found many references to a truce between the Ottomans and Habsburg Spain in 1580.
  • The early ottoman and spanish empires 3 pages 654 words november 2014 saved essays save your essays here so you can locate them quickly.
  • If the Ottomans wanted to directly help the Andalusians by sending soldiers there, they'd have to go through the Mediterranean, which was patrolled by the Spanish, the Genoese, the French, the Venetians, and other states including the Papal States.
  • While the extent of the Ottoman Empire was, by 1914, somewhat reduced (in the past it had included large parts of North Africa, South Eastern and Eastern Europe, the Middle East and the Arabian peninsula), its territory still spanned large parts of the Middle East and Arabia, which came to be heavily affected by the First World War.













World War i Ottoman Empire


  • J. Llewellyn et al, "Ottoman Empire before World War I" at Alpha History, http://alphahistory.com/worldwar1/ottoman-empire/, 2014, accessed.
  • Centuries before the Ottomans ruled the world's richest empire, but by the 1800s they had long been overtaken by the trading strength of the British, French and other European powers.
  • During this period the Ottoman Army faced many challenges including the Italo-Turkish War (1911), the Balkan Wars (1912-13), unrest on the periphery (such as in the Yemen Vilayet and the Hauran Druze Rebellion ), and continuous political unrest in the empire: the 1909 counter coup had been followed by a restoration, and then another coup d'état in 1912, which was followed by a raid on Porte in 1913.
  • The Ottoman Empire finally entered the war in October when Enver Pasha, without consulting any of his ministerial colleagues, ordered the Ottoman fleet, including German-crewed ships, into the Black Sea to attack the Russians.
  • The treaty was initially signed after the secret German military mission to Turkey in which the Ottoman Empire was pressured to join their covert alliance which was known by only five Turks at the time.
  • Ever since 1889 the Orient Express had run directly to Constantinople, and before the First World War the Sultan had accepted a German plan to extend it through Anatolia to Baghdad.
  • These attempts were largely unsuccessful, and by World War I the empire was in full decline.
  • No war has had as big an impact on the modern Middle East as the First World War, which lasted from 1914-1918.
  • In essence, following the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, the Middle East fell into the hands of European powers like Great Britain and France.































Ottoman Empire Kings


  • Abdülmecid II, the last Ottoman caliph, also lacked a tughra of his own, since he did not serve as head of state (that position being held by Mustafa Kemal, President of the newly founded Republic of Turkey) but as a religious and royal figurehead. d ^ : The Ottoman Interregnum, also known as the Ottoman Triumvirate ( Turkish : Fetret Devri ), was a period of chaos in the Ottoman Empire which lasted from 1402 to 1413.
  • Accordingly, King Charles XII of Sweden was welcomed as an ally in the Ottoman Empire following his defeat by the Russians at the Battle of Poltava of 1709 in central Ukraine (part of the Great Northern War of 1700-1721).
  • From the 18th century onwards, Ottoman sultans increasingly emphasized their status as caliphs in order to stir Pan-Islamist sentiments among the empire's Muslims in the face of encroaching European imperialism.
  • The Ottomans developed an efficient system for counting the empire's population in 1826, a quarter of a century after such methods were introduced in Britain, France and America.
  • The Ottoman army continued to be an effective fighting force throughout the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, falling behind the empire's European rivals only during a long period of peace from 1740-1768.
  • Many of the descendants of the these nations spread out into Saudi Arabia." 9 In his efforts to drive Napoleon out of the Middle East, the King of the North/Ottoman Empire focused his attention where French forces were located.
  • During the nineteenth century, the Ottoman Empire lost its Balkan territories to rising European nationalism and imperialism — especially panSlavism as instigated by Russia.
  • Which was it?
















Ottoman Empire Kurds


  • The Kurdish ethnonationalist movement that emerged following World War I and end of the Ottoman empire was largely reactionary to the changes taking place in mainstream Turkey, primarily radical secularization which the strongly Muslim Kurds abhorred, centralization of authority which threatened the power of local chieftains and Kurdish autonomy, and rampant Turkish nationalism in the new Turkish Republic which obviously threatened to marginalize them.
  • The former provinces of Syria and Mesopotamia under the Ottoman Empire would be divided into five nation-states: Lebanon and Syria which would be under French control and Palestine, Jordan and Iraq including Mosul Province which would be under British control.
  • The route took me over rugged hills, along the rims of vertiginous gorges, and past the haunting ruins of a church, destroyed in the convulsions that accompanied the collapse of the Ottoman Empire in the early 20th century.
  • That nationalism gained new vigor following the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire; the Treaty of Sevres promised a new state of Kurdistan, carved mostly out of territory in modern day Turkey.
  • Saladin's empire declined after his death, giving way to Ottoman and Persian power, which reached new heights in the 16th and 17th centuries.
  • For example the Ottoman Empire can be found in the Atlas of Turkey.
  • We demand to the U. N. Security Council, Presidents of the USA. Russia, UK, France, the head of the European Union, presidents of the European states, President of Turkey and urge, to rebuild historical justice and condemn the genocide of Yazidi, Armenians, Greeks, and Assyrians people which took place in the Ottoman Empire in 1915-1918.













Ottoman Empire Leader


  • Abdülmecid II, the last Ottoman caliph, also lacked a tughra of his own, since he did not serve as head of state (that position being held by Mustafa Kemal, President of the newly founded Republic of Turkey) but as a religious and royal figurehead. d ^ : The Ottoman Interregnum, also known as the Ottoman Triumvirate ( Turkish : Fetret Devri ), was a period of chaos in the Ottoman Empire which lasted from 1402 to 1413.
  • Arguably the greatest of all the Ottoman leaders, Süleyman not only extended his empire greatly but he encouraged an era of great cultural wonder.
  • After the conquest of Constantinople in 1453 by Mehmed II, Ottoman sultans came to regard themselves as the successors of the Roman Empire, hence their occasional use of the titles Caesar ( قیصر ‎ Qayser ) of Rûm, and emperor, as well as the caliph of Islam.
  • From their humble beginnings as a small Turkish state in the 1300s, the Ottomans would grow to become the premier Muslim empire throughout the 15th to 19th centuries.
  • He then annexed Serbia in 1439, beginning a policy of replacing the vassals with direct Ottoman rule throughout the empire.
  • Millets were led by religious chiefs, who served as secular as well as religious leaders and thus had a substantial interest in the continuation of Ottoman rule.
  • The nationalism of the Young Turks, whose leader Enver Pasha gained virtual dictatorial power by a coup in 1913, antagonized the remaining minorities in the empire.
  • In the late Ottoman period when his empire was deteriorating, he had the goal of revolutionising his renewed country and making it great.
































































Ottoman Empire Napoleonic Wars


  • The opportunism of the minister of war Enver Paşa, early German victories, friction with the Triple Entente (France, Russia, and Great Britain) arising out of the shelter given by the Ottomans to German warships, and long-standing hostility to Russia combined to produce an Ottoman bombardment of the Russian Black Sea ports (October 29, 1914) and a declaration of war by the Entente against the Ottoman Empire.
  • The reason Napoleon didn't try to interfere in the Ottoman Empire once he was supreme dictator was, if I remember what I read correctly, because he was busy with Britain, Austria, Spain, Prussia and Russia (At different times, of course) and he didn't want to bring the Turks, a British ally, against them.
  • @cewiw I'm not an expert on the Napoleonic Wars, but to get that to work I think you'd need Russia to stay on peaceful terms with Napoleon.
  • This was because Napoleons wars weakened the Russians and Austrians far more then it weakened the Ottoman Empire.
  • The Napoleonic Wars left the Hapsburg kingdom a shell of its former self, it was no longer a major power beyond Eastern Europe, and its demise after WWI could be traced to a series of defeats inflicted by Napoleon.
  • Wars against Russia, Austria, and other European states caused the Ottoman Empire to lose significant portions of its European territory in the Balkans, as well as several important ports on the Black Sea to Russia.
  • It was the first major European conflict to involve the Turks, if we discount their brief participation in the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars.













Ottoman Empire Over Time


  • Mehmet II ( Ottoman Turkish : محمد الثانى Meḥmed-i s ānī, Turkish : II. Mehmet ), (also known as el-Fatih (الفاتح), "the Conqueror", in Ottoman Turkish, or, in modern Turkish, Fatih Sultan Mehmet ) (March 30, 1432, Edirne - May 3, 1481, Hünk rcayırı, near Gebze ) was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire ( Rûm until the conquest) for a short time from 1444 to September 1446, and later from February 1451 to 1481.
  • Murad I (nicknamed Hüdavendig r, from Persian: خداوندگار, Khodāvandgār, "the devotee of God" - but meaning "sovereign" in this context) ( Turkish : I. Murat Hüdavendig r ) (March or June 29, 1326, Sogut or Bursa - June 28, 1389, Battle of Kosovo ) ( Ottoman Turkish : مراد الأول ‎) was the ruler of the Ottoman Empire, Sultan of Rûm, from 1359 to 1389.
  • After that empire broke up the Ottoman Turks began to take control of the other states belonging to the former empire and by the late 1400's all other Turkish dynasties were controlled by the Ottoman Turks.
  • While the Byzantine Empire was to continue for nearly another four centuries, and the Crusades would contest the issue for some time, the victory at Manzikert signalled the beginning of Turkic ascendancy in Anatolia.
  • Throughout the 14th and 15th centuries, therefore, the Ottoman state gradually reshaped its government and military institutions to meet the needs of administering and defending an expanding empire.
  • As it was said earlier, the real Ottoman expansion started from Anatolia, when the Turkish warlike communities in the region became more and more hostile to Byzantium -- their successful raids against the old Christian empire were inspired by religious zeal and passion for enrichment.
  • Spanning more than a century of conflict, the book considers challenges the Ottoman government faced from both neighbouring Catholic Habsburg Austria and Orthodox Romanov Russia, as well as - arguably more importantly - from military, intellectual and religious groups within the empire.







































































































Ottoman Empire Sultan


  • The sultans of the Ottoman Empire ( Turkish : Osmanlı padişahları ), who were all members of the Ottoman dynasty (House of Osman), ruled over the transcontinental empire from its perceived inception in 1299 to its dissolution in 1922.
  • Portrait of Murad II (Amasya, 1404-Edirne, 1451), Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, illustration from Turkish Memories, Arabic manuscript, Cicogna Codex, 17th century.
  • Mehmed VI took power at a critical time, as the victorious allies of World War One were dealing with a defeated Ottoman Empire and their nationalist movement.
  • Millets were like mini-states, that regulated smaller civic matters such as marriages, deaths, etc. In a sense, the Ottoman Empire was like the United States is today; a powerful "federal" government that ruled from the seat of power in Istanbul, while "millet state" governments ruled over their small vicinities.
  • Selim I (Ottoman Turkish: سليم اوّل, Modern Turkish: I.Selim), also known as "the Excellent," "the Brave" or the best translation "the Stern", Yavuz in Turkish, the long name is Yavuz Sultan Selim; (October 10, 1465/1466/1470 – September 22, 1520) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to 1520.
  • After the deposition of the last Sultan, Mehmet VI, in 1922, and the subsequent abolition of the Ottoman Caliphate in 1924, members of the Imperial family were forced into exile.
  • The Ottoman Sultan had for centuries (especially since the 16th century ) claimed the title of Caliph, which by this point had to mean something like "spiritual leader of Sunni Muslims," and as the empire had started to seriously falter in the 19th century, the sultans began to emphasize this claim more and more.


































The Ottoman Empire Was Based on the Anatolian Plateau in Modern


  • Anatolia ( Modern Greek : Ανατολία Anatol'a, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ, Greek pronunciation: ; Turkish : Anadolu "east" or " rise"), also known as Asia Minor ( Medieval and Modern Greek : Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá As'a, "small Asia"; Turkish : Küçük Asya ), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
  • As Turkey successfully transformed from the religion-based former Ottoman Empire into a modern nation-state with a very strong separation of state and religion, an increase in the modes of artistic expression followed.
  • As the Ottoman Empire further shrank in the Balkan regions and then fragmented during the Balkan Wars, much of the non-Christian populations of its former possessions, mainly Balkan Muslims (Bosnian Muslims, Albanians, Turks, Muslim Bulgarians and Greek Muslims such as the Vallahades from Greek Macedonia ), were resettled in various parts of Anatolia, mostly in formerly Christian villages throughout Anatolia.
  • Traditionally, Anatolia is considered to extend in the east to an indefinite line running from the Gulf of Alexandretta to the Black Sea, coterminous with the Anatolian Plateau.
  • Eastern Anatolia where the Pontus and Taurus Mountain ranges converge, is rugged country with higher elevations, a more severe climate, and greater precipitation than are found on the Anatolian Plateau.
  • The three Islamic empires of the early modern period - the Mughal, the Safavid, and the Ottoman - shared a common Turko-Mongolian heritage.
  • The western coastal plains are generally more densely populated and industrial than are the central and eastern regions, except for Ankara on the central Anatolian plateau.













Ottoman Empire Under Mehmed Ii


  • Mehmed II, the Conqueror (ca. 1432-1481) was a Turkish sultan who conquered Constantinople and ruthlessly consolidated and enlarged the Ottoman Empire with a military crusade into Asia and Europe.
  • Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, and conqueror of Constantinople and the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire.
  • He was frustrated while ruling briefly (1444-46) during the retirement of his father, Murad II, but on coming to power backed expansionist factions, and by 1453 had achieved the long-standing Ottoman objective of taking Constantinople and thus uniting the European and Asian parts of the empire.
  • With the conquest of Constantinople (Istanbul), Mehmed moved the capital from Edirne to Istanbul and imperial palaces were built here, and the best of the kapikulu trained at the palace.Mehmed II captured the remaining important Greek cities of the Byzantine Empire such as Galata, Trebizond, Crimea, etc. By the end of Mehmed II's reign, the Empire reaches the full boundaries of the Byzantine Empire.
  • He, therefore, had to rely only on the Christian vassal forces at the Battle of Ankara (1402) but were overwhelmed by Timur's powerful army, which gave way to Bayezid's capture and eventual death leaving Tamerlane able to complete conquests in Anatolian and leaving the Ottoman Empire without a leader for about 10 years.
  • Mehmed II attacked the city shortly after midnight on May 29.
  • The condition of Jews in that state was far better than in Christian Europe and 40 years later the Jews expelled from Spain found refuge in the Ottoman empire.








































Charles v Ottoman Empire


  • Charles V made overtures to the Safavid Empire to open a second front against the Ottomans, in an attempt at creating a Habsburg-Persian alliance.
  • The Habsburgs preserved and expanded their inheritance, but Charles failed in his efforts to reform the empire or slow the spread of Protestantism, largely because, vast though his resources may have been, they were insufficient to meet his goals.
  • Charles' efforts to unify his possessions were unsuccessful, largely due to the hostility of Francis I of France, the Ottoman Turks in central Europe, and the conflicts arising from the advance of Lutheranism in Germany.
  • These portraits of Francis I, King of France, and Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor, were made by an Ottoman court artist who was a sea captain in charge of the Ottoman Imperial Navy.
  • Charles abdicated midway through this conflict, leaving further conduct of the war to his son, Philip II, and his brother, Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor.
  • Instead he created a world empire based on Spain that Spain, in the end, could not preserve.
  • The Ottoman's run of success keeps on a rolling in this action-packed episode!
  • Again like the Armenians, the Syrians underwent considerable persecution in the death throes of the Ottoman Empire.
  • Not to be outdone, Ottoman ships struck many parts of southern Europe and around Italy, as part of their wider war with France against the Habsburgs.
  • The Holy Roman Emperor Charles V was the most famous Habsburg in history, presiding over an empire that stretched from the Philippines to Peru and was the greatest in Europe.
  • Charles V is the young King of Spain and (after his election) Holy Roman Emperor, giving him control of various minor territories in Italy, Austria, Germany and the Low Countries; he is easily the most powerful monarch in Europe.
  • By the end of the decade Charles had made peace with the pope and with Francis, and in 1530 he was crowned by the pope as emperor and as king of Italy.























Ottoman Empire Wars


  • It was instigated by Charles XII of Sweden after the defeat at the Battle of Poltava, in order to tie down Russia with the Ottoman Empire and gain some breathing space in the increasingly unsuccessful Great Northern War.
  • The eventual recovery of all Ottoman territory, and the birth of nations based on ancient entities such as the Serbian Empire and the Bulgarian Empire in the nineteenth century, can be regarded as victory for European civilization, itself often identified as Christian.
  • Impending defeat at Gallipoli prompted London to order a British-Indian army to march on Baghdad to rekindle support for the war at home, and assuage suspected Muslim restiveness within their Empire.
  • The long decline of the Ottoman Empire then began, because of defeats in battle by Austrian and Russian forces, and because of internal weaknesses. (Hungary was recovered by the Habsburgs at the Treaty of Carlowitz in 1699.)
  • The empire entered WWI as an ally of Germany, and its defeat and the occupation of part of its territory by the Allied Powers in the aftermath of the war resulted in its partitioning and the loss of its Middle Eastern territories, which were divided between the United Kingdom and France.
  • During its long history, the Ottoman Empire was engaged in many land and naval military campaigns, some of which to destinations very far away from the seat of power and the "core" provinces of the empire (i.e. central and western Anatolia and the southern and central Balkans): Egypt, Iran, Hungary, Vienna, Malta, India, and many more. (A catalog of raids also includes such places as the environs of Venice and the coasts of France and Spain.)











































Ottoman Empire Young Turk Revolution


  • The Young Turk Revolution of July 1908 reversed the suspension of the Ottoman parliament by Sultan the Abdul Hamid II, who abdicated, marking the return to Constitutional government.
  • In order to preserve the legacy of the Ottoman Empire, many Turks felt a need for modernization of the country.
  • Among the most notable of the liberal émigrés was Ahmed Rıza, who became a key spokesman for the influential Young Turk organization known as the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP), which advocated a program of orderly reform under a strong central government and the exclusion of all foreign influence.
  • Foreign powers also took advantage of the situation; in 1908, Austria-Hungary formally annexed Bosnia and Hercegovina "nominally still Turkish," the "Balkan League" annexed almost all of "the territory the Ottoman Empire still had in Europe" and Italy took Lybia, Rhodes and several islands.
  • The Young Turks were a diverse group of Turkish citizens who rebelled against Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid II and his extremely authoritarian government in the early 20th century.
  • Taking advantage of the political confusion reigning in the aftermath of the First Balkan War which the Ottoman Empire lost in 1912 to its former subject states, the CUP seized power in a coup d'etat in January 1913.
  • The subsequent Republic of Turkey inherited the political and social infrastructure of the Young Turk government.
  • By the end of the Great War the Ottoman empire had been reduced to little more than Anatolia, a Turkish population with Greek, Kurdish, and Armenian minorities.
  • The Nicaeans eventually reconquered Constantinople from the Latins in 1261, thereafter there was little peace for the much-weakened empire as it fended off successive attacks by the Latins, the Serbians, the Bulgarians, and, most importantly, the Ottoman Turks.





































Ottoman Empire 19th Century


  • The 19th century was one of degradation, as the Ottomans struggled to retain control of their empire, in the face of external pressure and internal turmoil.
  • Therefore, foreign threat and influence was a major factor in the ultimate outcome of the reforms; there were two types of threats; first, the UK which by the second half of the 19th century had become a net exporter of finished goods to the lucrative Ottoman market and a net importer of raw material form the empire for its industry.
  • During the 19th century, there was an exodus to present-day Turkey by a large portion of Muslim peoples from the Balkans, Caucasus, Crimea and Crete, By the early 19th century, as many as 45% of the islanders may have been Muslim, had great influence in molding the country's fundamental features.
  • The Russo-Turkish War of the late 19th century signaled a turning point in Europe's balance of power.
  • Out of the conflict that characterized central Europe in the first half of the 19th century were formed two powerful territorial empires: the German Empire and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, ruled by the descendants of the medieval Holy Roman Emperors.
  • The early 19th century saw military pressure from Austria and Russia only increase, and an invasion of Egypt by a French army under Napoleon, in 1798, paved the way for the Ottoman viceroy there to become an effectively independent ruler.
  • The Ottomans' survival depended on reforms from within - reforms initiated by the sultans and their advisors at the top of the imperial system and carried out in stages over most of the 19th century.
  • The reforms of the 19th century were carried out in the face of great difficulties a shortage of suitably qualified people to implement the government dictats on the ground, hostility from influential traditionalists but they constituted an amazing achievement.

















































Ottoman Empire 20th Century


  • Several divisions of Armenian Christians fought on the Russian side in the campaign, and in the wake of the loss, the large Armenian population within the Ottoman Empire found themselves victims of the 20th century’s first genocide.
  • Despite the Ottoman alliance with the Germans, most of the Ottoman Empire's oil production in the early 20th century was controlled by the British.
  • The Ottomans bridge that between 1300 and the 20th century.
  • If these numbers are true (and there’s no way of knowing), it was one of the bloodiest battles in world history prior to the 20th century.
  • By the end of the eighteenth century, therefore, the major themes of the later history of the empire were already visible: the threat of Russian expansion, contained as much by the opposition of European powers as by effective Ottoman resistance; the reform of the Ottoman armed forces; and internal political reforms intended to convert what was effectively a medieval empire into a modern state.
  • In little over 300 pages, the book (reviewed in HDN here ) covers more than 600 years of history - from the empire’s 13th century origins in the Balkans and western Anatolia to its protracted, violent dissolution at the start of the 20th century.
  • The Ottoman Empire, like its eventual rival the Habsburg Empire, was a dynastic kingdom whose rule encompassed most of the Middle East, most of North Africa, and parts of Europe at its peak in the mid-17th century.
  • Hüsnü Pasha, Ali Rıza Pasha, Enver Pasha and other officers pose beside an armored vehicle in the early 20th century.
















































































































































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