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Progressive Era Government


  • Progressive era politics changed that belief when government corruption became commonplace.
  • Across the nation, middle-class women organized on behalf of social reforms during the Progressive Era.
  • Compared to the Progressive Era, we're really arguing about big government versus bigger government.
  • Progressive Reforms List Fact 5: The 1902 Anthracite Coal Strike of 1902 saw President Roosevelt, as leader of the federal government, act as a mediator.
  • Many of the political organizations that have been central to American democracy from the 20th century--labour unions, trade groups, and professional, civic, and religious associations--were founded during the Progressive era.
  • The Progressive movement accommodated a diverse array of reformers--insurgent Republican officeholders, disaffected Democrats, journalists, academics, social workers, and other activists--who formed new organizations and institutions with the common objective of strengthening the national government and making it more responsive to popular economic, social, and political demands.
  • The Progressive Era began at the turn of the 20th Century and lasted through World War I. This period represented a time of economic and social reform.
  • Historian Sidney Milkis characterizes the accomplishments of the original Progressive Era as "momentous reconstructions of politics," a description that equally applies to the numerous social movements that aimed to better align America’s political and social order with its ideals of liberty, equality, and opportunity for all.







Progressive Era Groups


  • The Progressive ideology espoused by many of the era attempted to correct societal problems created by racial integration following the Civil War by segregating the races and allowing each group to achieve its own potential.
  • Women became leaders in a range of social and political movements from 1890 through 1920, known as the Progressive Era.
  • Congress and the presidency had to take leadership roles, but below them were Progressive groups such as the National Civic Federation, the NCL, and the General Federation of Women’s Clubs pushing for significant policy change.
  • Historian Sidney Milkis characterizes the accomplishments of the original Progressive Era as "momentous reconstructions of politics," a description that equally applies to the numerous social movements that aimed to better align America’s political and social order with its ideals of liberty, equality, and opportunity for all.
  • The Progressives themselves are likewise not an easily identifiable group, either by background or motivation.
  • Progressive reform also touched private institutions such as universities, hospitals, and even charitable or religious groups.
  • Progressives were groups of reformers that worked to improve social and political problems in the late 1800’s and early 1900’s.
  • The Progressive Era, as the period in history at the turn of the 20th century has come to be known, was a time of tremendous social, economic, and political changes, and the presidential election of 1912 typified the reform spirit of the period.


















































































Progressive Era Jim Crow Laws


  • BY: Angel Barajas, Britni Townsend, Steven Marquez, Micheal Rose, The Jim Crow Laws Progressive Era Oklahoma Restricts Teachers An Oklahoma statute prohibits schoolteachers from instructing white and black students in the same facility.
  • While their intentions were good, and while the economic policies they advocated ultimately would advance the cause of African-Americans, the practitioners and creators of Jim Crow were blind not only to the needs of blacks, along with their basic humanity, but also were unable to understand that they unwittingly were helping the very people they claimed to hate.
  • The most passionate economic "reformers" of the early Progressive Era, such as U.S. Senator "Pitchfork" Ben Tillman of South Carolina, also were the most vocal racists and based their campaigns on going after established businesses and blacks. (Woodward could not reconcile himself to what he saw as the inconsistency of Tillman’s political and economic Progressivism with his racism.)
  • "Jim Crow laws’ were indeed laws, i.e., requirements that persons and businesses and government agencies must practice racial discrimination or face civil or criminal penalties.
  • Throughout the South "Jim Crow" laws at the state level entrenched segregation as a way of life.
  • Although the Progressive Era brought reform to government and business and increased political power for many citizens, its benefits were limited to white Americans; African Americans and other minorities continued to experience discrimination and marginalization during this era.




















































Progressive Era Labor Unions


  • In the West, it wasn't middle-class Progressives but working-class Americans who spearheaded the formation of the Union Labor Party, which prompted passage of California legislation to limit working women's maximum hours on the job, as well as a child labor law.
  • Alt-labor has succeeded in gaining resources and support from traditional unions and has developed connections with both labor and community organizations that approximate the cross-class alliances that assisted workers’ struggles during the Progressive Era.
  • The greedy, unethical and ruthless 'Robber Barons' who used unfair business practices exploited their workers which led to Riots, Strikes and the emergence of the Labor Unions.
  • The AFL was formed in large part because of the dissatisfaction of many trade union leaders with the Knights of Labor, an organization that contained many trade unions and that had played a leading role in some of the largest strikes of the era.
  • The concerns of the corporate community had changed from a need to insure consumer demand, due to a lingering fear of what happened in the 1930s, to a need to control inflation and labor unions.
  • Before the reforms there were a lot of problems with workers and the labor unions.
  • Jake Gray Kade Scott Background Problems Factory Conditions/Sanitation Consumers' League -During the Progressive Era, large business owners demanded long hours for very little pay.
  • In the Progressive Era, employers tried to harness the period’s reformist spirit to help bust unions.
  • Socialism reached is highest popularity in both the U.S. as a whole and in California during the Progressive era.
  • The vast majority of American workers remain stubbornly nonunion despite the best efforts of labor unions, the federal government, its court intellectuals, and the mass media.
  • Despite the league's closeness to the White House during the Roosevelt years, the WTUL's role grew increasingly irrelevant once traditional labor unions allowed women to join on a widespread basis.
  • A Muted Fury, the first study of this neglected chapter in American political and legal history, explains the origins of hostility toward the courts during the Progressive Era, examines in detail the many measures that antagonists of the judiciary proposed for the curtailment of judicial power, and evaluates the successes and failures of the anti-court movements.
  • The year 1896 to 1916 is the progressive era and is considered to be the peak of reforms.


































































































































Progressive Era Supreme Court Cases


  • This exhibit will observe some of the most famous and impactful Supreme Court cases of the Progressive Era and describe the impacts that they had.
  • Regulations regarding working hours, working conditions, child labor, and workers unions were incredibly significant to the progressives at the during this period yet the Supreme Court often found that regulating any of these would infringe upon an individuals "right to contact", a new legal idea established through substantive due process and the 14 th amendment.
  • During the progressive era, the Court provoked even more criticism for its willingness to strike down economic regulations passed by state legislatures, such as minimum wage and maximum hour laws.
  • The Supreme Court continually struck down both state and federal regulations which sought to protect workers from the dangerous working environments that businesses were exposing them to.
  • We ought to recall that during the Progressive Era and the New Deal, the Supreme Court was mostly hostile to reform but it was unable to stop it, and its very hostility may have been a stimulant.
  • In the most prominent sign of the new era, the Court in West Coast Hotel v. Parrish (1937) upheld a state minimum wage law for women and minors and overruled a Lochner-era case in which Holmes had dissented.
  • The Supreme Court was for decades a principal target of progressive criticism on the theory, then widely accepted, that national policy ought not to be set by nine lawyers purporting to interpret an ambiguous document of the eighteenth century.
  • Modeled off the Chinese restrictions, the Alien Contract Labor Act of 1885 prohibited "imported contract labor," regardless of the country of origin, and Price described in detail a Progressive Era defined by increasingly restrictive immigration controls.
  • Only in 1810 in Fletcher v. Peck did the Supreme Court first strike down a state law.















































































Progressive Era Women's Suffrage


  • Carrie Chapman Catt, Anna Howard Shaw, and Alice Paul were the major leaders of the women's suffrage movement during the Progressive Era.
  • Acting through such organizations as the Young Women's Christian Association, the National Consumers' League, professional associations, and trade unions, female reformers were at the forefront of the movement against child labor as well as the women's suffrage campaign.
  • In the Progressive era, 1870-1920, Womens suffrage became a huge priority for women during this time; especially for the right to vote.
  • The efforts of women reformers during the Progressive Era in early twentieth-century America forged a foundation for subsequent human rights movements, including civil rights and feminism.
  • Anthony and Stanton first proposed a national women's suffrage amendment granting women the right to vote in 1878.
  • Although, for the most part, the Progressive Era neglected African Americans, Ida Wells-Barnett became prominent for her attacks on Jim Crow America, black voter disenfranchisement, and lynching.
  • The Progressive party of 1912 was strongly in favor of women's suffrage; theirs was the first major national convention to permit women delegates.
  • The final push for women's suffrage came on the eve of World War I. Determined to win the vote; the National American Suffrage Association developed a dual strategy that focused on the passage of state voting rights laws and on the ratification of an amendment to the U.S. Constitution.
  • Using the language of municipal housekeeping women were able to push such reforms as Prohibition, women's suffrage, child-saving, and public health.







Progressive Era Woodrow Wilson


  • FRANCO-AMERICAN RELATIONS, 1914-17 Most of the general works cited under "American Neutrality, 1914^17, General" advert to the relations between the United States and France. 306 WOODROW WILSON AND THE PROGRESSIVE ERA T. Bentley Mott, Myron T. Herrick, Friend of France (Garden City, N.Y., 1929), and William G. Sharp, War Memoirs of William Graves Sharp (London, 1931), are the biography and memoir of the two American Am- bassadors in Paris from 1914 to 1917.
  • It is obvious that the Progressive Era has much to tell us about the roots of American reform and the attitudes which underlie the movements of American foreign policy.
  • Harley Notter, The Origins of the Foreign Policy of Woodrow Wilson (Baltimore, 1937), is thorough but based on published sources.
  • In the 1940s typically historians saw the Progressive Era as a prelude to the New Deal and dated it from 1901 (when Roosevelt became president) to the start of World War I in 1914 or 1917.
  • Like Roosevelt before him, Woodrow Wilson regarded himself as the personal representative of the people.
  • President Theodor Roosevelt, the most dominant personality of the Progressive Era, targeted monopolistic business practices for reform.
  • To this end, I think it worth remembering that Wilson was joined in his push for, and beliefs in, eugenics by Margaret Sanger, another icon of the "Progressive" era.
  • When we think of the Progressive Era we usually think of Theodore Roosevelt, Robert LaFollette, muckrakers and the like.
  • The new biography of Woodrow Wilson by A. Scott Berg casts the 28th president as a great, if imperfect, political leader.



















































































































































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