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Protestant Reformation Martin Luther


  • The Reformation, or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation, was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, and other Protestant Reformers in 16th-century Europe.
  • Reformation, also called Protestant Reformation, the religious revolution that took place in the Western church in the 16th century.
  • Martin Luther claimed that what distinguished him from previous reformers was that while they attacked corruption in the life of the church, he went to the theological root of the problem--the perversion of the church’s doctrine of redemption and grace.
  • The Protestant Reformation incorporated doctrinal changes such as a complete reliance on Scripture as the only source of proper belief ( sola scriptura ) and the belief that faith in Jesus, and not good works, is the only way to obtain God's pardon for sin ( sola fide ).
  • In The Making of Martin Luther, professor of Reformation history at the University of Cambridge Richard Rex shows that this momentous event never occurred.
  • The Protestant Reformation was one of the most transformative events in church history.
  • Luther’s complaints about the Roman Catholic practice of selling indulgences (the forgiving of sins) launched the Protestant Reformation, forever altering the cultural, political, religious and artistic landscape of Europe and the world.
  • Among the recent studies, Eric Metaxas’s " Martin Luther: The Man Who Rediscovered God and Changed the World " (Viking) makes this claim in grandiose terms.
  • In his break with Rome, Martin Luther left the monastic life and married, thus establishing the precedent for married clergy in the Protestant churches.
  • We are doing a little class on the Protestant Reformation in my local church and so I’m extra-motivated to find just the right books to promote that can help rekindle a love of learning - itself a reformation theme and motivate us to think deeply about reformation doctrine.
  • In between, shops display Reformation-themed souvenirs from the pedagogic to the playful: biographies of Martin Luther and his cohorts; detailed analyses of early Protestantism; Reformation beer, wine and liquor; chocolates and noodles shaped into Luther’s profile; and socks knitted with the words "Here I stand.
  • He said the major issues of the Protestant Reformation are no longer issues today: the question of whether righteousness before God is by works or unmerited grace; the sale of indulgences to get loved ones out of purgatory more quickly; and the political struggle for control of the church.





















































































Protestant Reformation Catholic Church


  • The Radical Reformation was the response to what was believed to be the corruption in the Catholic Church and the expanding Magisterial Protestant movement led by Martin Luther and many others.
  • The Reformation, or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation, was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, and other Protestant Reformers in 16th-century Europe.
  • If the Reformation is the Protestant effort to move the people of Christian Europe toward what Protestant leaders regarded as a truer, purer, more faithful Christianity and away from what they thought of as the heretical, impure and corrupt Christianity of the Catholic Church, then the Counter-Reformation is what we call the Catholic effort to move people to a deeper understanding and practice of their faith as the Church saw it.
  • Protestantism, to the extent this view allows such a diverse set of beliefs and practices to be grouped under a single "ism," still represents so many perspectives of Christian reform that to speak of the Protestant Reformation misleads.
  • As Protestantism spread throughout Europe, reformers within the Catholic Church argued for change.
  • Besides the obvious impact on religion, the Protestant Reformation also led to large shifts in the balance of power in Europe.
  • Throughout the 16th cent., the Catholic Church also underwent reformation.
  • The Council of Trent rejected Protestant Reformation leader Martin Luther's doctrine of justification by faith alone, leaving no room for compromise with Protestants on the central issue of the nature of faith.
  • In 1517, drawing upon long-standing currents of dissent, Martin Luther, an Augustinian monk and professor of theology at the University of Wittenberg in Germany, challenged the authority of the Pope and attacked several key doctrines of the Catholic Church.































Protestant Reformation Events


  • Reformation, also called Protestant Reformation, the religious revolution that took place in the Western church in the 16th century.
  • Britannica Classic: The Reformation: Age of Revolt This 1973 video, produced by Encyclopædia Britannica Educational Corporation, discusses the Reformation and its leader Martin Luther, whose grievances against the Roman Catholic Church produced a chain of events that left a profound impact on religion and politics.
  • The series of events marking the 500th anniversary of the Reformation continues in October and November in Corvallis.
  • On Oct. 31, 1517, German pastor and theologian Martin Luther is said to have nailed 95 theses to the door of Castle Church in Wittenberg, Germany, sparking the Protestant Reformation, a religious and cultural revolution that split western Christianity and radically changed world history.
  • Catholic and Protestant leaders have stressed their mutual bonds 500 years after the start of the Reformation, a movement that tore apart western Christianity and sparked a string of bloody religious wars in Europe lasting more than a century.
  • The Protestant Reformation refers to the period in the 15th Century, when some Christians broke away from the Roman Catholic church, beginning new Protestant movements.
  • Islam's reformation follows the same logic of the Protestant Reformation--specifically by prioritizing scripture over centuries of tradition and legal debate--but with antithetical results that reflect the contradictory teachings of the core texts of Christianity and Islam.



















Protestant Reformation France


  • The Kingdom of Navarre, although by the time of the Protestant Reformation a minor principality territorially restricted to southern France, had French Huguenot monarchs, including Henry IV of France and his mother, Jeanne III of Navarre, a devout Calvinist.
  • Catholic House of Habsburg and its allies fought against the Protestant princes of Germany, supported at various times by Denmark, Sweden and France.
  • One key dimension was the Protestant Reformation, the movement that began in 1517 with Martin Luther's critique of doctrinal principles and church actions in Germany and that led to the establishment of new official churches — the Lutheran, the Reformed or Calvinist, and the Anglican.
  • Renée de France is a person to note during the Protestant Reformation because of her piety, hospitality and generosity to those who were in danger because of their faith.
  • John Knox, the brave Scotch Reformer, not a few of the English Puritans, the Protestants of Holland and of Spain, and the Huguenots of France carried from Geneva the torch of truth to lighten the darkness of their native lands.
  • The history of the Huguenots began in 1517 in Wittenberg, Germany, when Martin Luther tacked Ninety-Five Theses to the front door of a church and launched what we now know as the Protestant Reformation.
  • Let us know what’s wrong with this preview of The Protestant Reformation In France Vol.1 by Anne Marsh-Caldwell.
  • The council solidified Catholic doctrine in response to the Protestant Reformation and implemented reform through the church.
  • Born on July 10, 1509, in Noyon, Picardy, France, John Calvin was a law student at the University of Orléans when he first joined the cause of the Reformation.



















Protestant Reformation Germany


  • Christopher J. Probst, in his book Demonizing the Jews: Luther and the Protestant Church in Nazi Germany (2012), shows that a large number of German Lutheran clergy and theologians during the Nazi Third Reich used Luther's hostile publications towards the Jews and Judaism to justify at least in part the anti-Semitic policies of the National Socialists.
  • Religions were sold to whoever had the most money What was the Protestant Reformation?
  • One key dimension was the Protestant Reformation, the movement that began in 1517 with Martin Luther's critique of doctrinal principles and church actions in Germany and that led to the establishment of new official churches — the Lutheran, the Reformed or Calvinist, and the Anglican.
  • Protestants assume he was the first to translate the Bible into the common language but that had already been done by the Catholic Church with 14 additions of the Bible in German.
  • On Oct. 31, 1517, German pastor and theologian Martin Luther is said to have nailed 95 theses to the door of Castle Church in Wittenberg, Germany, sparking the Protestant Reformation, a religious and cultural revolution that split western Christianity and radically changed world history.
  • This day was the "official" start of the Protestant Reformation, when Luther nailed his 95 Theses (on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences) on the Castle Church in Wittenberg.
  • The council solidified Catholic doctrine in response to the Protestant Reformation and implemented reform through the church.
  • In the years after Martin Luther's 95 theses, Protestant churches began popping up across the German-speaking areas of the Holy Roman Empire and beyond. (Germany as a country didn't exist until much later.)














































Protestant Reformation Henry Viii


  • In England, the Reformation arose from the desire of King Henry VIII (b. 1491; r. 1509-1547) to put aside his wife, Catherine of Aragon (1485-1536) because she had not given him a male heir.
  • There were many factors that influenced the Protestant Reformation in England, such as the political climate of Roman Catholic Church corruption and the increasing discontent among both nobles and laymen.
  • The ideological battle raged with particular ferocity in England, where King Henry VIII wished to divorce his wife, Catherine of Aragon, the daughter of Spain's Ferdinand and Isabella, in order to marry his mistress, Anne Boleyn.
  • Despite differing views regarding the legitimacy of Henry’s marriage to Catherine, the marriage was broken by divorce on the basis of it having transgressed Leviticus 18:16, and thus it could be said that the English Reformation’s Ninety-Five Theses event was resolution of the "Great Matter" with the divorce of Catherine and Henry through the establishment of the Church of England with Pope-King Henry VIII as its supreme head.
  • Mary died in 1558 and was succeeded by her half-sister Elizabeth, a Protestant who stood up to Rome and secured the Protestant Reformation in England.
  • People like Queen Elizabeth I and Henry VIII brought the Reformation in England much success, however their reasons were based on self-gain and desire for political power.
  • The council solidified Catholic doctrine in response to the Protestant Reformation and implemented reform through the church.












































































Protestant Reformation King James


  • With Catholics on the defensive, Protestants transcribed the Bible and the King James Version is still the most famous and authoritative in the English language.
  • Often quoted as a forefather to the Protestant Reformation, Wycliffe and his followers (know as the Lollards), translated the Vulgate (the fourth century Latin version of the Bible) into English during 1382-1384.
  • Of all the English versions available today, the King James Version is the only one which can be called a Reformation Bible.
  • His Catholic mother, Mary, Queen of Scots, ruled a kingdom in the grips of the Protestant Reformation; his English father, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, was estranged from Mary, who was frustrating his political ambitions at court.
  • Her baby son James VI was crowned king and Mary fled to England where she soon became a prisoner of her cousin, the Protestant Elizabeth I, and an investigation was held over her husband's murder.
  • He maintained the Protestant reformation, and authorised a translation of the Bible into contemporary English which is in use to this day.
  • Protestants today are largely unaware of their own history, and unaware of the Geneva Bible (which is textually 95% the same as the King James Version, but 50 years older than the King James Version, and not influenced by the Roman Catholic Rheims New Testament that the King James translators admittedly took into consideration).
  • I believe that Orwell, a strong admirer of the Protestant Reformation and the poetry of its hero John Milton, was using as his original allegory the long struggle of English dissenters to have the Bible made available in a language that the people could read.











































Protestant Reformation Netherlands


  • During the Renaissance and the Protestant Reformation an independent Dutch religious tradition began to take shape in the northern parts of the independent Netherlands.
  • With Presbyterian and Puritan emigrants from Britain, Huguenots from France, and Dutch Reformed from the Netherlands, the Protestant Reformation also spread to North America, where it would later evolve into the hugely popular charismatic movement.
  • The third wave of the Reformation, Calvinism, arrived in the Netherlands in the 1540s, converting both parts of the elite and the common population, mostly in Flanders.
  • The Protestant Reformation of the 16th century began as an attempt to reform the practices of the Catholic Church.
  • With independence from Spain realized, the Protestant Netherlands of the north and the Catholic Netherlands of the south coexisted peacefully as a land of religious tolerance.
  • The corruptness and immorality of the Church spurred the Christian Reform motion in Europe, finally taking to the " 100 old ages of civil war between Protestants and Catholics " or the Protestant Reformation.
  • The particular attraction of this study of the action and reaction of Church and State in Britain and the Netherlands lies in the scope it offers historians and political scientists for making comparisons be­ tween two states, both of which endorsed the Protestant Reformation while rejecting absolutism.
  • One key dimension was the Protestant Reformation, the movement that began in 1517 with Martin Luther's critique of doctrinal principles and church actions in Germany and that led to the establishment of new official churches — the Lutheran, the Reformed or Calvinist, and the Anglican.



































































Protestant Reformation Reformers


  • Czech reformer and university professor Jan Hus (c. 1369-1415) became the best-known representative of the Bohemian Reformation and one of the forerunners of the Protestant Reformation.
  • At the heart of the Protestant Reformation lay four basic questions: How is a person saved?
  • Reformers in the Church of England alternated, for decades, between sympathies for ancient Catholic tradition and more Reformed principles, gradually developing, within the context of robustly Protestant doctrine, a tradition considered a middle way ( via media ) between the Catholic and Protestant traditions.
  • Here one might justifiably argue, as Justo L. González, that Zwingli established a closer connection between church and state than Luther did ( A History of Christian Thought, Vol. III: From the Protestant Reformation to the Twentieth Century, 70-85).
  • The council solidified Catholic doctrine in response to the Protestant Reformation and implemented reform through the church.
  • We won't delve far into theology or matters of faith, but some basic church history will help explain the Protestant Reformation : a major schism within Christianity that changed history in ways so embedded in the Western world that they're easy to overlook or take for granted.
  • Of course, none of this is to speak ill of those that have followed in the footsteps of the Protestant Reformersor even the Reformers themselves.
  • Bailey also addresses a possible connection between the Protestant Reformation and witchcraft accusations in which the reformation of the Church caused increased tensions concerning demonic corruption.


















































































Protestant Reformation Violence


  • The wars started a few years after the onset of the Protestant Reformation in 1517 and intensified following the beginning of the Counter-Reformation in 1545, culminating in the outbreak of the Thirty Years' War in 1618.
  • New morals and values that developed during the Protestant Reformation influenced the decline of violence and crimes centuries after the Reformation, causing modern day violence to be significantly lower than at any point in history.
  • Although they were by no means the only religious order in the foreign missions of the church, their responsibility for regaining outside Europe the power and territory that the church had lost within Europe as a result of the Protestant Reformation made them the leading force in the Christianization of newly discovered lands in the Western Hemisphere, Asia, and the Pacific Islands.
  • Lest we consider the patriarchy of the Protestant Reformation and the Catholic Counter-Reformation to be quaint aberrations of ignorance from a long-ago past and irrelevant to today, we will soon draw parallels to the writings, and sermons of the Christian fundamentalist Bible literalists who are gaining power in setting policy in the United States today.
  • What if the Catholic Church had tried to swiftly and decisively crush the Reformation in the cradle, instead of mixing repression with negotiation and reform?
  • Part 2 of our look at the Protestant Reformation, from the Nov. 6 issue of OSV Newsweekly, explores how the Catholic Church responded with its counter-reformation.













Charles v Protestant Reformation


  • In 1530 Charles, attempting to bring about a reformation within the Roman Catholic Church through the convocation of a universal council, also tried to find a modus vivendi with the Protestants.
  • Born in 1500, Charles I of Spain was successor of the Austrian Habsburg dynasty and ruled the majority of Europe during the Reformation as Emperor Charles V. On the side of his father, Philip of Burgundy, were the Habsburg Austrian Maximilian and Mary of Burgundy.
  • Charles failed in his purpose to return the Protestants to the Roman Catholic Church, and the human and financial cost of constant warfare drained Spanish resources; moreover, Charles's hopes for a universal empire were thwarted by the political realities of Western Europe.
  • Charles V, (born February 24, 1500, Ghent, Flanders --died September 21, 1558, San Jerónimo de Yuste, Spain), Holy Roman emperor (1519-56), king of Spain (as Charles I; 1516-56), and archduke of Austria (as Charles I; 1519-21), who inherited a Spanish and Habsburg empire extending across Europe from Spain and the Netherlands to Austria and the Kingdom of Naples and reaching overseas to Spanish America.
  • His permanent rivalry with the Emperor Charles V for hegemony in Europe was the origin of a long and ruinous military conflict that gave rise to the Protestant revolution.
  • The complexities of the Habsburg-Valois contest and the Turkish front distracted Charles from what would become the defining feature of his reign: the growth of Protestantism.
  • He tried to stamp out the Protestant Reformation and make his response, the Catholic Counter-Reformation, global.
  • The Holy Roman emperor Charles V (1500-1558) inherited the thrones of the Netherlands, Spain, and the Hapsburg possessions but failed in his attempt to bring all of Europe under his imperial rule.
  • The Holy Roman Empire was a fragmented collection of largely independent states, which, after the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century, was divided between Catholic and Protestant rulership.
  • A war within the Holy Roman Empire between German Protestants and their allies (Sweden, Denmark, France) and the emperor and his ally, Spain; ended in 1648, after great destruction, with Treaty of Westphalia.
  • Whilst Germany was convulsed by one of the most sanguinary of intestine wars, the Emperor resided in Spain, and his army fought and defeated the King of France before Pavia; which circumstance may serve as an additional proof of the evil caused by the election of Charles V. as head of the German Empire.


























Protestant Reformation 500 Years


  • The year 2017 marks 500 years since a stubborn monk and towering thinker, Martin Luther, published his 95 theses or complaints against the Catholic Church and launched the Protestant Reformation, a momentous religious revolution whose consequences we still live with today.
  • Besides the obvious impact on religion, the Protestant Reformation also led to large shifts in the balance of power in Europe.
  • Essentially, in the16th-century, the Protestant Reformation took its stand against the Roman Catholic Church over the authority of the Holy Bible verses man-made traditions--especially traditions that undermined the New Testament message of salvation by grace through faith in Jesus Christ alone, and over Church authority.
  • The service will be held at Prince of Peace, 257 Highway 314, Fayetteville at 10 a.m. "Beginning at 9:30, there will be a pre-service concert of church music through 500 years," Thomas said.
  • The global Catholic Church, the Lutheran World Federation, and other Protestant denominations have been preparing for the Reformation anniversary over the past year, beginning with a common prayer service in Sweden on Oct. 31, 2016 attended by Pope Francis and the LWF’s then-President, Bishop Munib A. Younan.
  • The Protestant Reformation is traditionally believed to have begun in 1517, when Luther nailed his 95 Theses to the door of Wittenberg’s Castle Church ― although some historians have disputed the historical accuracy of that story.
  • On Oct. 31, 1517, German pastor and theologian Martin Luther is said to have nailed 95 theses to the door of Castle Church in Wittenberg, Germany, sparking the Protestant Reformation, a religious and cultural revolution that split western Christianity and radically changed world history.
















Protestant Reformation 16th Century


  • Beginning in Germany and Switzerland in the 16th century, the Radical Reformation gave birth to many radical Protestant groups throughout Europe.
  • In the 16th century Erasmus of Rotterdam, a great humanist scholar, was the chief proponent of liberal Catholic reform that attacked popular superstitions in the church and urged the imitation of Christ as the supreme moral teacher.
  • At the heart of the Protestant Reformation lay four basic questions: How is a person saved?
  • God appointed the 16th century to be the time of reformation, and had pre-pared the Church in many ways for this reformation.
  • The Reformation of the 16th century was a movement within Western Christendom to purge the church of medieval abuses and to restore the doctrines and practices that the reformers believed conformed with the Bible and the New Testament model of the church.
  • One key dimension was the Protestant Reformation, the movement that began in 1517 with Martin Luther's critique of doctrinal principles and church actions in Germany and that led to the establishment of new official churches — the Lutheran, the Reformed or Calvinist, and the Anglican.
  • Today, that’s the sort of thing you’d expect the Taliban to do to infidels but, in the 16th century, such intrigue was common fare in Europe.
  • It is called the protestant reformation and it was initially an attempt to reform the traditional 'fabric' of the western church.
  • Until the 1970s, the civil and religious wars that afflicted France through the second half of the 16th century were viewed largely as the consequence of political rivalries that spun out of control following the death of King Henry II. More recently, historians have shifted their attention to the social and cultural contexts in which the wars took place, particularly to the fundamentally religious nature of the quarrels.
  • People in Southern Europe didn't eat a lot of butter back in the 15th and 16th century.













Protestant Reformation 18th Century


  • Throughout the 18th century the word Protestant was still defined in relation to the 16th-century Reformation.
  • Christianity in the 18th century is marked by the First Great Awakening in the Americas, along with the expansion of the Spanish and Portuguese empires around the world, which helped to spread Catholicism.
  • According to other historical interpretation, the Reformation could truly be considered to have ended in the middle 18th century, as the Peace of Westphalia did not specify, nor did it mean that it concluded; that is around time the First Great Awakening (1730-1755) took place.
  • These traditions and growing dissatisfaction with rationalism and formalism in religious belief and practice led to the Great Awakening, a revivalist movement of the first half of the 18th century.
  • It should also be noted that not every item of the Modernist programme need be traced to the Protestant Reformation; for the modern spirit is the distilled residue of many philosophies and many religions: the point is that Protestantism proclaims itself its standard-bearer, and claims credit for its achievements.
  • The new practices were tweaked and implemented in different ways in the 17th and 18th century as people became accustomed to the new styles of church music (Kennemur).
  • Its earliest manifestations, which occurred in Italy, date from the latter decades of the 16th century, while in some regions, notably Germany and colonial South America, certain of its culminating achievements did not occur until the 18th century.



















Elizabeth 1 Protestant Reformation


  • Under Elizabeth Parliament had flourished and the Protestant Reformation had become entrenched in the Church of England and through the Puritan movement.
  • When English Queen Mary I strove to reconcile England with the Roman Church in 1554, Paul IV initially refused to settle, demanding to be paid back for the property of the monasteries taken from the church by her father, Henry VIII. On Mary's death he rejected Elizabeth's claim to the crown, claiming she was of illegitimate birth. 1559-65: Pope Pius IV (Giovanni Angelo Medici; 1449-1565).
  • Parliament was summoned in 1559 to consider the Reformation Bill and to create a new church.
  • Under Elizabeth the Counter- Reformation assumed menacing proportions be­cause of her Protestant faith and the opposition of the Catholics and the Papacy to her succession.
  • Klein uses as sources many acts of Parliament and proclamations to show how the Elizabethan government treated Catholics and Protestants in restoring the Anglican Church after the reign of her sister, Mary.
  • Henry's reformation had produced dangerous Protestant-Roman Catholic differences in the kingdom.
  • The Rescusancy laws were meant not to suppress the forces of the Counter- Reformation though, these helped to keep the disloyal Catholics under control who otherwise might have proved more menacing to Elizabeth's Church Settlement.
  • Generational change ensured that, probably by the time of the attempted Catholic invasion of the Spanish Armada in 1588 (whose defeat was acclaimed in England as evidence of divine favor to a Protestant nation), the great majority of English people were Protestants.
  • The first decade of Elizabeth's reign found the Catholics relatively quiet and content.
  • By the year 1570 when it became abundantly clear to the Pope that the hope of a Catholic succes­sion either through seating of Mary Queen of Scots, on the English throne or through Elizabeth's mar­riage with any Catholic prince, was chimerical, he issued a Bull, i.e. a papal decree, excommunicating Elizabeth.







































































Protestant Reformation 500th Anniversary


  • People take pictures of a statue of German Church reformer Martin Luther holding a book including his translation into German of the New Testament of the Bible at the main square in front of the city hall in Wittenberg, eastern Germany, where celebrations take place on the occasion of the 500th anniversary of the Reformation on October 31, 2017.
  • The hundredth anniversary of the Reformation, celebrated throughout the Protestant areas of Germany, was observed from October 31 to November 1, 1617, but a standard annual observance began much later, sometime after the two hundredth anniversary commemoration in 1717.
  • That was vividly clear last fall when Pope Francis traveled to Sweden to help Protestant leaders launch commemorations of this Reformation anniversary.
  • Given that the kick-off of events leading up to the 500th anniversary will begin on October 31, 2016, and culminate on October 31, 2017, it's now time to begin the planning of jointly-sponsored events.
  • Michael Sean Winters rounds up political news and commentary: The Reformation's 500th anniversary; call-out on lies about Israel; Archbishop González's plea for Puerto Rico gets a boost from Lin-Manuel.
  • On October 31, 1517, Martin Luther nailed ninety-five theses to the doors of the Wittenberg Cathedral to protest against the corrupt practices within the Catholic church, spurring what we now know as the Protestant Reformation.
  • Pope Francis met with a delegation from the Church of Scotland at the Vatican on Thursday, just four days before Reformation Sunday, which was to mark the 500th anniversary of Martin Luther posting his 95 theses on the door of the Wittenberg Castle church.
  • This Sunday we celebrate the 500th anniversary of the most significant event in human history outside the birth, death, resurrection, and ascension of Christ.










































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