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The Qing Dynasty and Traditional Chinese Culture


  • A concluding chapter systematically explores the legacy of traditional Chinese culture to the twentieth century. (source: Nielsen Book Data) 9780813313474 20160527 The Qing Dynasty formed an important bridge between "traditional" and "modern" China.
  • Under the Qing Dynasty, traditional forms of art flourished and innovations were made at many levels and in many types.
  • The Qing Dynasty lost the Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895), and the Japanese made Formosa (Taiwan) and Liaoning  (the northeast corner of China, i.e. Manchuria, once the Manchu homeland) a part of their empire.
  • Nuanced and wide-ranging, noted historian Richard J. Smith's authoritative book provides an essential introduction to late imperial Chinese culture and society.
  • This engaging and insightful history of Qing culture and society traces the complex interaction between the Inner Asian traditions of the Manchus, who conquered China in 1644, and indigenous Chinese cultural traditions.
  • The literature of the Qing dynasty resembled that of the preceding Ming period in that much of it focused on classical forms.
  • Chinese architecture, examples for which can be found from more than 2,000 years ago, is almost as old as Chinese civilization and has long been an important hallmark of Chinese culture.
  • Qing Dynasty furniture occupies an important place in Chinese furniture, and is various in texture, styles and schools.
  • After communism took over in the 1949 revolution and the Cultural Revolution began in 1966, China systematically erased the cultures promoted during the Qing (1644-1912) and Republican (1912-1949) eras.
  • Foreign invaders from Manchuria--called Manchus-- ruled during this period and the robes reflect the melding of Manchurian and Han Chinese cultures.

























Qing Dynasty Blue and White Porcelain


  • Blue and white porcelain made at Jingdezhen probably reached the height of its technical excellence during the reign of the Kangxi Emperor of the Qing dynasty (r. 1661-1722).
  • By the late 17th century, high-quality blue and white porcelains from kilns around Jingdezhen had become a prominent part of this trade.
  • Elegant blue and white small Chinese vase of the Qing Dynasty period.
  • Wang Dayuan’s text contains the first known written reference to white porcelain decorated with designs painted in cobalt blue, which for centuries was one of the world’s most popular consumer items.
  • The cause of generally outdated Antique Chinese Pottery or blue and white porcelain is challenging to confirm.
  • Though Chinese appreciation of art objects always centered on the tastes of the imperial court, private collections were also important during the Qing dynasty (1644-1911).
  • Delicate yellow glazes, described as "comparable the yoke of a hen’s egg," and pure white porcelains, first reserved for imperial use during periods of mourning, became available on the New York art market during the Gilded Age.
  • As regards decorating, besides the blue and white, glazed color porcelain emerged and became a milestone in China’s ceramic history.
  • The blue and white at Kangxi period utilized gem blue, much purer and brighter than that of the Ming dynasty.
  • After this the glaze is blown on, it is fired in the kiln, and comes out a piece of white porcelain.
  • Chinese Blue and White Glazed Porcelain Vase, Qing Dynasty-18th century Of baluster form, the broad shouldered vase decorated in underglaze cobalt blue with shaped cartouches framing landscape scenes, flower filled vases, and archaic bronze vessels and scholar's objects, all between decorative lappet borders at the mouth and the foot.
  • This tradition of manufacture and exportation continued into the Qing Dynasty (17th Century AD to 20th century AD), with foreigners commenting on the industry and technique that was behind the production of such high-quality ceramic ware.










































































































Qing Dynasty Founded


  • The Qing dynasty was founded not by Han Chinese, who constitute the majority of the Chinese population, but by a sedentary farming people known as the Jurchen, a Tungusic people who lived around the region now comprising the Chinese provinces of Jilin and Heilongjiang.
  • Under the Qing the territory of the empire grew to treble its size under the preceding Ming dynasty (1368-1644), the population grew from some 150 million to 450 million, many of the non-Chinese minorities within the empire were Sinicized, and an integrated national economy was established.
  • Founded by Manchus from north of China in 1644, the Qing continued what they thought were the best practices of the Ming.
  • In 1644 the Manchus ( ) took Beijing from the north and became masters of north China, establishing the last imperial dynasty, the Qing (1644-1911).
  • As such, although the first half of Qing rule was characterized by social progress and stability because of the able leadership of the dynasty's early emperors, the Qing soon succumbed to the all-too-familiar story of dynastic growth and decline.
  • In 1683, the Qing staged an amphibious assault on southern Taiwan, bringing down the rebel Kingdom of Tungning, which was founded by the Ming loyalist Koxinga in 1662 after the fall of the Southern Ming and had served as a base for continued Ming resistance in Southern China.
  • The Ming dynasty (1368-1644) was founded by a Han Chinese peasant and former Buddhist monk turned rebel army leader ( ).
  • The Qing arose in the wake of the collapse of the Ming Dynasty, that fell from the 1630s and 1640s like many Chinese dynasties under the weight of government corruption, peasant revolts, famine caused by droughts that were possibly aided by the "Little Ice Age."

























Qing Dynasty Ginger Jar


  • This Qing Dynasty Blue and White Ginger Jar is no longer available.
  • Ranging from the more traditional blue and white patterns to the more elaborate multicolored motifs, today antique Chinese ginger jars can be found in museum collections, as well as in modern living rooms.
  • The mark with the reversed N was probably an error and one of the earliest English marks in the late Qing dynasty.
  • A 18th century, Chinese, Qianlong period, Qing dynasty, blue and white plate.
  • Many blue and white ginger jars representative of the Yuan Dynasty, 元朝 (1271 - 1368) come with the Chinese character for double happiness suggesting that they were given as presents for special occasions such as weddings and intended to last a lifetime.
  • Second half 19th century, Asian, the Chinese Qing Dynasty cobalt blue porcelain overpainted with gilt auspicious symbols, diapering, vines, tendrils, fruits and flowers, and insects. 12.25" H. Lacking lid; underside drilled for electricity, resulting in porcelain loss.
  • Since the 19th century, ginger jars have mainly been used for decorative purposes; not least due to their aesthetically pleasing form.
  • These two red seal marks say the same thing apart from the one on the left has the additional 3rd column on the right saying "Great Qing" - which is a reference to the lengthy Qing Dynasty (1644 to 1912) within which the Emperor Qianlong reigned from 1736-1795.
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Qing Dynasty Han


  • Movements and rebellions incorporating popular religious ideas took place in the last years of the Han, Yuan, and Qing dynasties, while political rebellions brought down the Tang and Ming dynasties. (This is when the Chinese often say a dynasty has lost the "Mandate of Heaven.")
  • The most representative golden ages in Chinese history are the reigns of Emperors Wen and Jing of the Western Han Dynasty, the Zhenguan Period in the Tang Dynasty (named after the reigning title adopted by Emperor Gaozu of Tang), the Kaiyuan Period of Emperor Xuanzong of the Tang Dynasty, and the reigns of Emperors Kangxi, Yongzheng, and Qianlong of the Qing Dynasty.
  • The Ming Dynasty Wall was solid, but it failed to stop the cavalries of the Qing Dynasty, a regime established by Manchu people in northeast China.
  • The great Qing expansion over these two centuries nearly tripled the land area under the control of a single dynasty, and it created permanent domination of the eastern portion of Central Eurasia.
  • The Qing dynasty was characterized by a system of dual appointments by which each position in the central government had a Manchu and a Han assigned to it.
  • Secret societies were set up, dedicated to getting rid of the foreign rulers and restoring a Han Chinese dynasty.
  • Sui Dynasty, with a northern power base and part "barbarian" rather than Han in descent ( like the later Tang ), conquered the south and reunited China, and began bureaucratic reconstruction and great public works, like the Grand Canal (ca 1904. photo)--1000+ miles linking the Yellow River and north China plains to Yangtze River basic and southern sea; 5 million forced laborers were enlisted to complete the canal.
















Qing Dynasty in Chinese


  • The Qing dynasty was a period of much literary collection and criticism, and many of the modern popular versions of Classical Chinese poems were transmitted through Qing dynasty anthologies, such as the Quantangshi and the Three Hundred Tang Poems.
  • The emperors equated the lands of the Qing state (including present-day Northeast China, Xinjiang, Mongolia, Tibet and other areas) as "China" in both the Chinese and Manchu languages, defining China as a multi-ethnic state, and rejecting the idea that "China" only meant Han areas.
  • Qing Dynasty, 1644-1911, also known as Ch’ing or Manchu, last of the Chinese dynasties.
  • In the early 1600s, the Manchu people of northern China began to unite against the Ming Dynasty.
  • Though, the Qing government was able to put down the rebellion and exert control over all of southern China.
  • In the mid-17th century, the nomadic Manchu people overthrew China's ruling Ming dynasty, sparking the beginning of the Qing dynasty.
  • Chinese scholars stressed the incorporation of multiple nationalities under Qing rule, viewing the conquests as benevolent reunification of Chinese territory.
  • The Qing, a Laissez-Faire State?
  • It emerged in the early Qing Dynasty (1644-1912) duringthe region of Emperor Kangxi, and developed in the reign of Emperor Yongzheng and the subsequent two hundred years.In nowadays, Qing Dynasty furniture spread its unique characters to the world and still possesses the high collecting value.
  • During the Qing period, imperial China reached its zenith of power and influence.





































































































































Qing Dynasty Names


  • Because the Qing dynasty was established by the Manchu people, a Tungusic people who saw themselves as heirs to both the Son of Heaven and earlier multi-ethnic empires, and because the empire had extended its control into Inner Asia, the court commonly used Chinese, Manchu, Mongol, Tibetan, and Uighur names for their realm.
  • The name may have been selected in reaction to the name of the Ming dynasty ( 明 ), which is composed of elements "sun" ( 日 ) and "moon" ( 月 ), both associated with the fire element of the Chinese zodiacal system.
  • In juxtaposition to the plight of the common Chinese woman, a woman rose to great political power within the last part of the Qing Dynasty; her name was Dowager Empress Cixi.
  • Ao - Liu Ao was the birth name of Han Chengdi (2) Bang - Liu Bang, king of Han, was the founder of the Han Dynasty (2) Buwei - Lu Buwei was a wealthy merchant during the time of Qin Shihuangdi's father (2) Changdong - Liu Changdong was the father of Han Lingdi (2) Chao - Ban Chao was a general during the Eastern Han Dynasty (1, 2) Fuling - Liu Fuling was the birth name of Han Zhaodi (2) Gao - Zhao Gao was a tutor of Er Shi.
  • As Qing power expanded north of the Great Wall in the last years of the Ming dynasty, the banner system was expanded by Nurhaci's son and successor Huang Taiji to include mirrored Mongolian and Han Banners.
  • After being the home of 24 emperors -- fourteen of the Ming Dynasty and ten of the Qing Dynasty -- the Forbidden City ceased being the political centre of China in 1912 with the abdication of Puyi, the last Emperor of China.
  • The Manchus were able to take control of Northern China and declare the Qing Dynasty with the help of Mongolians and Ming generals, who defected with their armies in 1644 after the Emperor committed suicide in Beijing.








































Qing Dynasty Official Language


  • In the later stage of the Qing Dynasty, Manchu was no longer the official language.
  • As late as 1906-1907 Qing education and military officials insisted that schools teach Manchu language, and that the officials testing soldiers' marksmanship continue to conduct an oral examination in Manchu.
  • AFAIK, Manchu and Chinese were both official languages, in that 上谕 etc. were normally drafted by two separate departments (sort of 'language editors') within the imperial bureaucracy until 1911.
  • More people speak a variety of Chinese as a native language than any other language in the world, and Modern Standard Chinese is one of the six official languages of the United Nations.
  • A full-page delicate gouache painting showing the daily life of family of the officials in the Qing Dynasty.
  • The Qing Dynasty (1644–1912) was the last Chinese dynasty, and the longest dynasty ruled by foreigners (the Manchus from Manchuria, northeast of the Great Wall).
  • You may say this is all for practical reasons, since Mandarin is the official language in the state Tibet is part of, but there is an obvious political motivation, to subdue nationalist sentiment by diluting cultural difference.
  • Man Wen Lao Dang (滿文老檔, The Old Archive of the Manchu Language) was recorded daily events, including political, ethnic, economic, military, and social, before 1644 when the Manchu troops occupied Beijing to establish the Qing Dynasty, as one of the orthodox Chinese dynasties.
  • Mandarin Chinese is the official language of Mainland China and Taiwan, and it's one of the official languages of Singapore and the United Nations.







































































































Qing Dynasty Tibet


  • These Tibetans say the appearance of subjugation to the Mongol rulers of the Yuan Dynasty in the 13th and 14th centuries, and to the Manchu rulers of China’s Qing Dynasty from the 18th century until the 20th century, is due to a modern, largely Western misunderstanding of the personal relations among the Yuan and Qing emperors and the pre-eminent lamas of Tibet.
  • Tibet within the Yuan dynasty under the top-level department known as the Bureau of Buddhist and Tibetan Affairs (Xuanzheng Yuan).
  • What ever ties existed between the Dalai Lama and the Manchu emperors of the Qing Dynasty were extinguished with the fall of that empire and dynasty.
  • The PRC claims that the Ming Dynasty exercised effective sovereignty over Tibet primarily by granting titles to various Tibetan lamas and officials.
  • Tibetan nationalists and their supporters counter that the Chinese Empire at that time was either a Mongol (in Chinese, Yuan) empire or a Manchu (Qing) one, which happened to include China too, and that Tibet was a protectorate, wherein Tibetans offered spiritual guidance to emperors in return for political protection.
  • The Qing Emperors provided no military assistance at all in Tibet's wars with the Dogras of Jammu (1841-1842), the Gorkhas of Nepal (1855-1856), and British India (1903-1904).
  • For more Information on the History of Qinghai as a part of the Region of Tibet during the Era of the Manchurian Empire, please read: 'History of the Qing Dynasty (1644 AD - 1911 AD)', "Kangxi Reign of the Qing Dynasty (1661 AD - 1722 AD)" and 'History of Islam in China', plus 'Islam in China during the Qing Dynasty'.



















Qing Dynasty Underwear


  • The zhuyao --embroidered underwear worn by court ladies-- was popular during the Qing Dynasty.
  • Before the Tang Dynasty to the Tang Dynasty before the mid-underwear shoulder straps are decorated, to the late Tang Dynasty, there was a strapless underwear, called "myrobalan."
  • During the Qing Dynasty, Han women were still binding their feet, but Manchu women didn’t.
  • Readers who are interested in Chinese costumes culture and would like to learn Chinese in China may be curious about the hair-style of the Chinese Han Nationality, well, the ancient male Han never tonsures, they tied their hair up with hairpins, and the Qing dynasty tend to braid the hair, regarding it to be elegant, while during the Republic of China, people tend to cut their hair short, cropped or bare headed.
  • Laid the foundation for the day after the "Apron" culture; Ming Dynasty culture of underwear "non embroidered with red" and "the waist" type of underwear, more embodies the social fashion in the "luxury life guide guide with" concept of consumption; at the end of the Republic, has inherited the traditional underwear, and acceptance of Western clothing culture in shaping his spirit, self-cultivation "Apron" art to enhance the character of Chinese underwear.
  • The historical absence of a coordinated nationwide movement of Chinese workers is due neither to their quiescence nor to effective repression by the regimes that have ruled China since the dawn of industrialization in the late nineteenth century--from the Qing Dynasty to the short-lived Republic to the Communists since 1949.

























Qing Dynasty Vs British Empire


  • In 1842 the Qing Dynasty was forced to sign the Treaty of Nanking --the first of what the Chinese later called the unequal treaties --which granted an indemnity and extraterritoriality to Britain, opened five treaty ports to foreign merchants, and ceded Hong Kong Island to the British Empire.
  • Opium Wars, two armed conflicts in China in the mid-19th century between the forces of Western countries and of the Qing dynasty, which ruled China from 1644 to 1911/12.
  • In the middle of the 19th century, the rising British Empire and the waning Chinese Empire went to war over drug addiction.
  • The Qing Dynasty lost the Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895), and the Japanese made Formosa (Taiwan) and Liaoning  (the northeast corner of China, i.e. Manchuria, once the Manchu homeland) a part of their empire.
  • The Opium Wars--two conflicts fought primarily between the British and the Qing dynasty first in 1839 and then again nearly two decades later--were at their simplest about the British desire to trade in a lucrative, restricted drug and have extraterritorial powers, and a Chinese empire’s refusal to allow them to do so.
  • First listed as a taxable commodity in 1589, opium remained legal until the early Qing dynasty.
  • A topic of choice is the Opium Wars, those 19th-century skirmishes on the far-eastern fringe of the British empire.
  • In June 1840, following the breakdown in negotiations with the Qing Dynasty over the trade of opium on Chinese territory, a large British military force captured the city of Canton (now Guangzhou) before marching up the coastline and entering central China at the Yangtze River delta.
  • This history begins with the very social relations and self-imagination of the British Empire at its peak, and crystallizes through post-imperial projects to refashion British identity, from imperial to national.


































Qing Dynasty Cixi


  • Although it has been 109 years (today) since the death of the Empress Dowager Cixi - also known as the "dragon lady" and the "old master Buddha" - who effectively ruled China during the late Qing dynasty (1644-1911) for nearly five decades, she still divides public opinion.
  • The empress dowager, Seagrave argues, did not crave power but simply acted to balance these influences and protect the Qing dynasty as best she could.
  • When the Xianfeng Emperor of the Qing Dynasty in China died in 1861 AD, his only son was only five years old.
  • I believe that Gintaisi's curse did in fact come into being as a woman of the Yehe-Nara clan destroyed Manchu rule and the Qing Dynasty came to an end three short years after Cixi's death.
  • Cixi's significance in late Qing government is not in dispute however there is more debate among historians about her motives, actions and legacy.
  • While little other sources could be find to verify this, it is interesting that no women that descended from the Yehe-Nara (excluding the other 3 tribes of the Nara clan) tribe ever joined an imperial harem in any capacity until the reign of Emperor Xianfeng, the seventh emperor of the Chinese Qing Dynasty (9th if you include all monarchs of the Qing even prior its conquest of China).
  • In this biography of Empress Dowager Cixi, Jung Chang challenges the depiction of the late Qing as dominated by venal, incompetent elites willing to make any sacrifice to sustain Manchu rule.
  • Her involvement in the coup was contrary to the tradition of the Qing Dynasty which dictated that women and princes were never to get involved in politics, marking her the sole empress dowager of the dynasty to execute control from "behind the curtains", renowned in Chinese as "chu' lián tīng zhèng".









































































































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