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Romantic Era Gender Roles

Main keywords of the article below: gender, roles, mainly, society, romantic, era, women, changed.

Romantic Era Gender Roles

C O N T E N T S:

KEY TOPICS
  • Throughout the Romantic Era the gender roles, mainly that of women, in society had greatly changed.(More...)
  • The Romantic Era was a time of complete social and political upheaval.(More...)
  • Goethe and other men of letters developed aesthetic norms for women's writing that were based on a male perspective of appropriate gender roles for women.(More...)

POSSIBLY USEFUL
  • During the Romantic period of British Literature, society began debating the proper role of women; not only were male poets and writers writing about their views of women’s changing role, women were increasingly prolific writers, writing about their own thoughts and experiences on the topic.(More...)



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KEY TOPICS
Throughout the Romantic Era the gender roles, mainly that of women, in society had greatly changed. [1] In A Sicilian Romance, Ann Radcliffe uses the Marquis, Julia’s father, as a plot device in order to address the constrictive gender roles imposed on women in the Romantic era in an attempt to raise awareness of their problematic nature. [2] Traditional gender roles were much more prevalent in the Romantic Era than they are today. [3]


The Romantic Era was a time of complete social and political upheaval. [1] Previously regarded only for their ability to bear and raise children, women throughout the Romantic Era and the Industrial Revolution began to be valued for their ability to work, both inside and outside a home setting, as both factory workers and service industry workers. [3]

Thanks partly to Mary Wollstonecraft’s A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792), the legal and social restrictions under which women lived were briefly but hotly contested during the period we now call the Romantic era (1789-1837). [4] A few decades after the end of the Romantic Era, women would earn the right to vote in many parts of the western world, with more rights being earned in the 20th century. [3] During the Romantic Era, which began in Europe during the 18th century, the position of women was subordinate to that of men. [3] The Marquis reproaches Ferdinand, reminding him that he is a man and shouldn’t entertain fantasies "which the firmer nature of a man should disdain." (Radcliffe 49) The Marquis’s reaction not only accentuates his stubborn nature, but also reflects the values of Romantic era England by enforcing the belief that women are weak and succumb to their feelings, while men are rational and in control of their emotions. [2] By the end of the Romantic Era -- the mid-1800s -- the position of women in society had greatly changed. [3] During the Romantic era, women and girls were constantly told: Be good! This meant being a virgin at marriage and a faithful wife afterward, with marriage the only socially approved goal. [4] In the Romantic era, women were trained to maintain a home, so there was no need for them to quit their estates and engage in wild adventures like their male relatives could. [2] Before Victoria: Extraordinary Women of the British Romantic Era, an exhibition held at NYPL in 2005 and the title of a companion book by Elizabeth C. Denlinger, told the stories of some of these women, putting them in the context of their extraordinary revolutionary moment. [4] The Romantic era saw the beginning of modern lesbian culture, exemplified in the now-obsolete social relationship known as romantic friendship, held up as a model of female virtue and devotion -- as long as there was no hint of sex. [4] If the Romantic era offered new ways to be good, it also offered many ways and places for women to have fun and to get into trouble. [4] Education for women in the Romantic era was underdeveloped. [4] The romantic era was that time between 1780 and 1850, which was characterized by enlightenment. [5]


Goethe and other men of letters developed aesthetic norms for women's writing that were based on a male perspective of appropriate gender roles for women. [6] The gender roles of this period can be understood from the varied roles ascribed to the two genders, the male, and the female. [7]

Thinking about the way in which couples act on romantic television shows or movies and the way women are portrayed as passive in magazine ads, reveals a lot about how gender roles are viewed in society and in heterosexual marriages. [8] In Brit Lit we briefly touched on the subject of gender roles during the romantic period, and I did not think much of it until it was also brought up in Women Authors. [9]

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines gender roles as "socially constructed roles, behaviors, activities and attributes that a given society considers appropriate for men and women". [8] As an aspect of role theory, gender role theory "treats these differing distributions of women and men into roles as the primary origin of sex-differentiated social behavior, their impact on behavior is mediated by psychological and social processes." [8] Femininity creates a society of overlapping gender roles, where "both men and women are supposed to be modest, tender, and concerned with the quality of life." [8] Masculinity creates a society of clearly distinct gender roles, where men should "be assertive, tough, and focused on material success," while women should "be more modest, tender, and concerned with the quality of life." [8] According to the study of Jean Lipman-Blumen, women who grew up following traditional gender roles from childhood were less likely to want to be highly educated while women brought up with the view that men and women are equal were more likely to want higher education. [8] These traits do not line up with the perceived traditional female gender role stereotype. (This is often referred to as the "lack of fit" model which describes the dynamics of the gender bias. ) Therefore, the perception that women do not possess these "masculine" qualities, limits their ability to be hired or promoted into managerial positions. [8] According to Hattery and Smith, when "masculinity and femininity are constructed…to generate these rigid and narrow gender roles, it contributes to a culture of violence against women" "People with more resources are more likely to be abusive towards those without resources", meaning that the stronger member of the relationship abuses their weaker partner or family member to exert their powerful roles. [8] Gender equality allows gender roles to become less distinct and according to Donnalyn Pompper, is the reason "men no longer own breadwinning identities and, like women, their bodies are objectified in mass media images." [8] Motivated by the women's rights movement and various other movements gender roles have begun to change, resulting in the changing economic landscape, women entering the workplace and many more. [8] The evidence for differences in gender role was found during the socialization in work experiment, proving that "women are socialized to be more expressive of their feelings and to show this to a greater extent in facial expressions and gestures, as well as by verbal means". [8] For a long time the roles have been very traditional, but more change like the Men in Motion show, has promoted a wider range of gender roles for female and male ballet dancers. [10] Gender roles can be defined as the behaviors, values, and attitudes that a society considers appropriate for both male and female. [8] One example of the contemporary definition of gender was depicted in Sally Shuttleworth ’s Female Circulation in which the, "abasement of the woman, reducing her from an active participant in the labor market to the passive bodily existence to be controlled by male expertise is indicative of the ways in which the ideological deployment of gender roles operated to facilitate and sustain the changing structure of familial and market relations in Victorian England." [8] The term gender role was first coined by John Money in 1955, during the course of his study of intersex individuals, to describe the manners in which these individuals expressed their status as a male or female in a situation where no clear biological assignment existed. [8] Model A describes total separation of male and female roles, while Model B describes the complete dissolution of gender roles. (The examples are based on the context of the culture and infrastructure of the United States.) [8] "Of, relating to, or designating a person whose identity does not conform unambiguously to conventional notions of male or female gender roles, but combines or moves between these." [8] A number of studies conducted since the mid-90s have found direct correlation between a female criminal’s ability to conform to gender role stereotypes, particularly murder, and the severity of their sentencing [8] According to Eagly et al., the consequences of gender roles and stereotypes are sex-typed social behavior because roles and stereotypes are both socially shared descriptive norms and prescriptive norms. [8] A gender role, also known as a sex role, is a social role encompassing a range of behaviors and attitudes that are generally considered acceptable, appropriate, or desirable for people based on their actual or perceived sex or sexuality. [8] In many cultures, gender roles, especially for men, simultaneously act as an indicator for heterosexuality, and as a boundary of acceptable behavior for straight people. [8] Therefore, lesbians, gay men and bisexual people may be viewed as exempt from some or all components of gender roles, or as having different "rules" they are expected to follow by society. [8] Overall, the eighteenth century marks a growing genre of literature that helped to change the gender roles in literature and society. [11] As this shift in society continues due to industrialization, gender roles (although they had been previously established) also change and shift. [9] Gender roles in the contemporary sex gender model are socially constructed, always changing, and do not really exist since, they are ideologies that society constructs in order for various benefits at various times in history. [8] Through these platforms society has influenced individuals to fulfill the stereotypical gender roles within a heterosexual marriage starting out at a young age. [8] In the sociology of gender, the process whereby an individual learns and acquires a gender role in society is termed gender socialization. [8] For some individuals gender roles may provide a positive effect, and their absence may prove difficult: while gender roles may be used as deleterious gender stereotypes, they can offer a clear avenue to verify and structure socially acceptable behavior. [8] Gender roles may be a means through which one expresses their gender identity, but they may also be employed as a means of exerting social control, and individuals may experience negative social consequences for violating them. [8] After reading your blog I realize that these gender roles can really inhibit each gender from achieving their full potential! For example, if men stayed conformed to the role social dictates we may never know how beautifully graceful, elegant, or feminine their dance could potentially be. [10] Socially constructed gender roles are considered to be hierarchical, and are characterized as a male-advantaged gender hierarchy by social constructionists. [8] In the United States, gender roles are communicated by the media, social interaction, and language. [8] Jane Eyre, as a socially aware novel, consistently challenges social standards and religious hypocrisy, brings to light the effects of industrialization on gender roles as it is set after industrialization, towards the end of a shift in the economy to a commercial economy. [9] In this lesson, we explore the early women's rights movement and their rejection of traditional gender roles in the 19th and early 20th centuries in the United States and Great Britain. [12] Same-sex domestic partners challenge traditional gender roles in their division of household responsibilities, and gender roles within homosexual relationships are flexible. [8] In 1971, she created the Bem Sex-Role Inventory to measure how well an individual conformed to a traditional gender role, characterizing those tested as having masculine, feminine, androgynous, or undifferentiated personality. [8] More and more individuals are adapting non-traditional gender roles into their marriage in order to share responsibilities. [8] Marriage is an institution that influences gender roles, inequality, and change. [8] Over the years, gender roles have continued to change and have a significant impact on the institution of marriage. [8] Various groups, most notably the feminist movement, have led efforts to change aspects of prevailing gender roles that they believe are oppressive or inaccurate. [8] Societies can change such that the gender roles rapidly change. [8] An example of these gender roles would be that males were supposed to be the educated breadwinners of the family, and occupiers of the public sphere whereas, the female’s duty was to be a homemaker, take care of her husband and children, and occupy the private sphere. [8] Several studies have been conducted looking at the gender roles of intersex children. [8] A sign of this progress in society, other than women’s introduction into several facets of society (i. e. entertainment, business, politics, etc. ), is the adoption of gender role reversal, partly due to its comedic portrayal in television but also its necessity in some homes. [13] In some cases, cultures where homosexuality is illegal and/or taboo, gender roles act as indicators of sexuality and boundaries of acceptable behavior. [8] Gender roles are culturally specific, and while some cultures distinguish only two ( boy and girl or man and woman ), others recognize more. [8] By the term, gender role, we mean all those things that a person says or does to disclose himself or herself as having the status of boy or man, girl or woman, respectively. [8] This result indicates that gender roles that have been passed down traditionally can influence stereotypes about gender. [8]

In relation to this gender role reversal Giddens believes that today, women have a far greater degree of equality: "In the current era, ideals of romantic love tend to fragment under the pressure of female sexual emancipation and autonomy" (Giddens, 1992: 61). [14] Its surprising to me how many people have bought into the myth that "old fashioned" gender roles are somehow bad and that girls have to be "strong". [15] According to the interactionist approach, roles (including gender roles) are not fixed but are constantly negotiated between individuals. [8] According to Professor Lei Chang, gender attitudes within the domains of work and domestic roles, can be measured using a cross-cultural gender role attitudes test. [8] To apply the ideas of gender roles to my life, I looked at gender stereotypes and common gender roles of ballet dancers. [10] There are huge areal differences in attitudes towards appropriate gender roles. [8] There was no difference between the viewpoint of Chinese and Americans regarding domestic gender roles. [8] It compared a strictly traditional view of gender roles (from an industrial-age American perspective) with a more liberal view. [8] Facilitators must be able to help participants understand the connections among sexism, heterosexism, and transgender oppression and the ways in which gender roles are maintained, in part, through homophobia." [8] Perhaps it is an attempt to reconcile this conflict that leads to a common assumption that one same-sex partner assumes a pseudo-male gender role and the other assumes a pseudo-female role. [8]

The period known as the Victorian era in England, from 1837 to 1901, witnessed such polarized gender roles that it can also be analyzed according to the different functions assigned to men and women, more commonly known as the ideology of separate spheres. [16] It is because of this, that romantic gender roles and expectations in today's society have changed. [14] Martin Barker and Roger Sabin note that the rigid gender roles and chivalric social codes that bind the actions of the protagonists are partially due to Cooper's association with the American Romantic movement (18). [17] This gender role reversal could be identified as one way in which the film breaks with the romantic comedy formula in which the image of Tom is feminized and Summer represents the dominant character of the film adhering obvious conventions (boy meets girl; boy and girl face obstacles to their romantic union; boy and girl conquer obstacles to find true love) from the romantic comedy formula. [14] By disposing of the independent minded Cora, Cooper reinforces the feminine ideal that Alice represents, which complements Romantic and chivalric gender roles. [17] Our findings capture differences between men and women in gender role norms and attitudes as predictors of sexual risk and preventive behaviors in established relationships. [18] It is helpful to interpret these findings in the context of recent scholarship on gender and sexual relationships, particularly masculinity, in South Africa. 18, 21, 23 Our findings about men and women offer insight into the nature of intimate relationships among young South Africans and into the ways that gender roles are—and are not—changing. [18] Our findings about women and partnerships perhaps offered the most insight into changing gender role and relationship norms for both men and women in this setting. [18] While the acceptance of man's gender role has been willingly taken up by women, the same does not always hold true for men. [19] To do this, we delineate the ways in which men's and women's views of gender roles in relationships, as well as their attitudes regarding interactions with their sexual partners, influence the extent to which they engage in behaviors placing them at risk for HIV infection. [18] Our measures appear to have captured normative beliefs and attitudes about gender roles, particularly for men, which we have found to be associated in plausible ways with sexual risk behaviors. [18] Perhaps most importantly, these findings suggest the need to look more deeply at prevailing assumptions regarding gender role norms, gender equality and safer sexual behavior, and to understand change surrounding gender roles as a dynamic and ever-changing, rather than linear, process. [18] The survey included questions on socio-demographic background, sexual risk behavior, partnership characteristics, and the six measures of gender attitudes and gender role norms. [18] Varga CA. How gender roles influence sexual and reproductive health among South African adolescents. [18] The changes and flexibility in gender roles which are being evident today has its roots in the changing social structure. [19] The shift that comes off as the most powerful is the change in gender roles resulting from the movement for women’s rights. [20] The aim of the study was to develop culturally specific measures of relationship and gender role norms, beliefs and attitudes. [18] Few such measures have been developed in African settings, and while some measures of gender role norms and ideologies, masculinity and relationship power do exist, 24, 26 we felt it imperative to inform the study of HIV risk and the development of interventions with culturally appropriate measures that could more easily be adapted to similar settings. [18] Finally there is a variation of the representation of the traditional gender roles of heterosexual relationships. [14] Lately the domain of feminism has expanded to include the social and professional fields, traditional notions about gender roles are undergoing transformation that has been mainly because of education. [19] William Shakespeare influenced this time period massively and incorporated the different gender roles and expectations into his plays. [21] More broadly, the qualitative findings provided insight into the dynamic and changing nature of gender role and relationship norms among young adults in this setting. 27 Preliminary versions of the questionnaire were developed, refined, and pilot tested prior to administration of the survey. [18] Bomb-throwing and lost nuance aside, as we take a close look at this epidemic (an effort that will surely take months if not years) and try to dissect the root "causes" of this crisis, and how it might be that in 2017 we are finding ourselves in this place, we might want to take a step back and look at the way the way gender roles in our culture--some subtle and some not so subtle--may have played a role, and how some of the signs may have been hiding in plain sight. [22]

POSSIBLY USEFUL
During the Romantic period of British Literature, society began debating the proper role of women; not only were male poets and writers writing about their views of women’s changing role, women were increasingly prolific writers, writing about their own thoughts and experiences on the topic. [23] Classmate Katie Rasmussen comments that in her poetry Barbauld "is writing about the role that women have in society and how that is going to change" (Victorian Age Discussion). [24] In 1791, Anna Letitia Barbauld protested against the role of women in society in her poem, "The Rights of Woman." [24] She does not have much hope of reforming the role of women through the educational system however; "It may be fairly inferred, that, till society be differently constituted, much cannot be expected from education" (Norton, Pg. 176). [24] The daughter of a minister, Barbauld married another minister, and frames much of her literary work in terms of motherhood and the expected roles of women during the era. [23] Beardsley's influence on the role of women during the Victorian Age was immense and long-lasting, as the 1890's are and were often referred to as the "Beardsley Period." [24] These role of women in society was fiercely debated by writers of the period; Mary Wollstonecraft, Maria Edgeworth, and Mary Darcy Robinson posited for women to be allowed more rights and autonomy over themselves, while Anna Letitia Barbauld wrote affirmatively in favor of the current social norms. [23] It was unkind But never mind Perhaps it was all for the best." ("In Black and White," 1894) After his success with Salome, Beardsley became the art editor and illustrator of The Yellow Book, a popular periodical which celebrated the avante-garde artistic tastes of the 1890's, "engaging in such burning issues as sex and the role of women." ( Lambirth Pg. 12). [24]

At the time of the Romantic literary period, woman still had very few rights and were viewed as helpless much of the time although women like Mary Wollstonecraft were writing about the rights women should have. [24] The Romantic Man The Romantic Woman The world's 'Christian family model' of the time regulated women of every class to the home and kitchen. [1]

Women were very oppressed by academic society during the Romantic Period in England. [24]

Women in this era who found their reputations tarnished found society to be particularly unforgiving; men, on the other hand, did not face such harsh judgements from society. [23] It was a common belief during this era that women are born physically and mentally inferior to men. [24] To contribute to their ability in the workforce, women were often educated in reading skills; resulting in a large number of female writers and artists coming from this Era. [1] Rejecting the "glittering shackles" that society imposes on women during this era, Robinson claims that not only will women’s lives be improved, but through education of their daughters, the "superstitious tenets of bigotry and fanaticism that genuine glow of conscious virtue which will grace them to posterity" (94-95). [23] In bringing the discussion to the forefront of human consciousness, these writers succeeded in impacting society; not only did the discussion set the framework for the debates that would occur in the Victorian Era, this remains a topic under discussion and debate as it impacts the women of the present era, over two hundred years later. [23]

Barbauld hints at the unfair treatment of women by the British "law" of the era. [24] Whilst the rigorously contested shift from male supremacy to complete gender equality began in this Era it was by no means achieved. [1] Many authors of the time, prominently the Bront" sisters, wrote under male pen names so that their work would not be unfairly criticized because of their gender. [1]

Not only did these writers impact other writers of their own era, their writings also impacted future generations of writers and are still part of the discussion today. [23] The inequalities in life at home are evident in the writings of this era as well. [24] The Norton Anthology website states that authors explored " the realm of nightmarish terror, violence, aberrant psychological states, and sexual rapacity" alongside artists of the era. [24]

Could this painting be the artist's revenge or a depiction of his digust with his own desires? These types of questions are classic examples of the conflicting ideas being tackled during the Romantic Period. [24]

In this course we will read Romantic literature for its revisions of gender and their influence on us. [25] Is it powerful or weak? Is it one or many? Can nonfiction be literature? Does Romantic literature blend genres or divide them? Consider genres as protocols and genders as protocols. [25]

The Vern and Bonnie Bullough Collection on Sex and Gender spans many topics including birth control, abortion, homosexuality, cross dressing, sex education, and prostitution, and includes numerous works demonstrating popular public opinion and more subversive, revolutionary ideas about appropriate roles for women during the 19 th century. [26] What does the study of Romanticism and gender say about our understanding of human individuals? Have we oversimplified them or overcomplicated? Underestimated or overestimated? We have tested the roles played by citizens and exiles, lovers and spouses, fathers and mothers. [25]

This paper shall focus on the role of women during this historic period. [5] Although the most essential role of women remained the maintenance of households, this took political overtones. [5] Their most important role was to tend the house and have children, unlike the men, in accordance with Victorian masculinity. [5] This transformation in women’s lives also produced poetry, novels, plays, and paintings; new ways of understanding feminine sexuality; and new feminine roles in British culture. [4] A mother of three, Terhune wrote on domestic roles for women including etiquette, cooking, and the importance of maintaining a household. [26]

Like the culture wars of the 1990s, the international movement known as Romanticism took shape as a struggle over traditional and transgressive ideas of gender. [25] Put romance, romanticism, and gender in a triangular relationship. [25] Literary criticism doesn't happen in a vacuum--certainly not in a course in Romanticism and gender! Criticism is part of a larger intellectual world of assumptions and approaches and (perish the word!) theories. [25] Articles by Harold Bloom, Camille Paglia, Eve Sedgwick, and others will offer perspective on Romanticism as part of today's "gender wars." [25] Give us a brief and fair summary of the selection and your sense of the selection's contribution to the debate over Romanticism and gender. [25]

Reflecting the interdisciplinary perspectives that inform feminist German studies, each issue contains critical inquiries employing gender and other analytical categories to examine the work, history, life, literature, and arts of the German-speaking world. [6]

Ann Radcliffe uses the Marquis’s misogynistic nature to highlight the double standard that Romantic women faced throughout their lives - men can do whatever they please, and women must stay behind and tend to the house. [2] Romantic feminists worked to redefine the terms with which society saw, valued, and educated women. [27] The life of women during both the Romantic and Victorian era was mostly centered on commitments within the family. [5] The 18th and 19th centuries have been defined as the Romantic and Victorian eras. [5]

In the Victorian era, as the sciences became professionalized, women were shut out, but some extraordinary early women in science -- among them, Caroline Herschel, Ada Byron, and Mary Somerville -- are still known today. [4] Victorian Era was not characterized by equality between man and woman, but by the apparent difference between them. [7] The Victorian era, on the other hand, is that period between 1837 and 1901. [5] The late 19th century from 1837-1901 is famous as the Victorian era in England. [7] Being a prostitute meant being unclean in the Victorian era. [7]

Regardless of which particular issue was being addressed, women in the Romantic period claimed that improper education was the source of the problem. [27] The traditional presentation of prostitutes as greedy and deceitful was also still viable in the Romantic period, especially in conjunction with other stereotypes, such as this anti-Semitic portrayal of a Jew in Ladies Trading on Their Own Bottom (ca. 1810), an engraving by Thomas Rowlandson. [4]

The methods employed were more puritanical than Romantic; she encouraged her daughter’s conscience by having Victoria write reports on her own behavior. [4] The fertile Romantic mood did not prove immediately fruitful for women. [27] The History Guide writes, "Romantic ideas (arose) both as implicit and explicit criticisms of 18th century Enlightenment thought." [3]

Though many of these issues were unresolved at the end of the era, these women's efforts paved the way for future advocates. [27] Although complete gender equality continues to elude the modern world, the substantial gains over time are significant. [3]

For them, gender is "the product of social doings of some sort. undertaken by men and women whose competence as members of society is hostage to its production". [8] These associations have been disputed for their biological connection to gender and have been attributed to social forces that perpetuate stereotypes such as aforementioned stereotype that men are better at mathematics than women. [8] It has been found that men have stronger positive associations with mathematics than women, while women have stronger negative associations with mathematics and the more strongly a woman associated herself with the female gender identity, the more negative her association with mathematics. [8] Many transgender people reject the idea that they are a separate third gender, and identify simply as men or women. [8] Communication plays a large role in the process in which people become male or female because each gender is taught different linguistic practices. [8] Dr. Sandra Lipsitz Bem is a psychologist who developed the gender schema theory, based on the combination of aspects of the social learning theory and the cognitive-development theory of sex role acquisition, to explain how individuals come to use gender as an organizing category in all aspects of their life. [8] These two studies, conducted by Beverly I. Fagot, Mar D. Leinbach and Cherie O'Boyle, showed that gender stereotyping and labeling is acquired at a very young age, and that social interactions and associations play a large role in how genders are identified. [8] In the U.S., marriage roles are generally decided based on gender. [8] They argue that the use of "role" to describe gender expectations conceals the production of gender through everyday activities. [8] Roles are situated identities, such as "nurse" and "student," developed as the situation demands while gender is a master identity with no specific site or organizational context. [8] For them, "conceptualizing gender as a role makes it difficult to assess its influence on other roles and reduces its explanatory usefulness in discussions of power and inequality". [8] Gender Stereotypes - Changes in People's Thoughts, A report based on a survey on roles of men and women. [8] This vocal agitation for change led to a wholesale reexamination of the relationships between men and women and the role of women in society. [12] Because society holds these expected roles for men and women within a marriage, it creates a mold for children to follow. [8] This document, which adopted some terminology and turns of phrase of the U.S. Constitution, laid out the injustices of the current role of women in society, including their inability to own property, their subjugation to men, and their lack of political access, among others. [12] While some cultures encourage men and women to take on the same roles, others promote a more traditional, less dominant role for the women. [8] Men and women are typically associated with certain social roles dependent upon the personality traits associated with those roles. [8] My husband and I are both feminists and have raised our children (boy and girl) to value men and women in a variety of roles. [15] For approximately the past seven decades, heterosexual marriage roles have been defined for men and women based on society’s expectations and the influence of the media. [8] Just as women have been represented as a submissive role, men have been fed a message that they have to be the stronger, dominant half to their partner. [15] Women had to be feminine to play the roles while men were masculine. [10] Children's literature gave women writers an outlet to reconstruct their perception of the woman's role in society. [11] Spurred by the movement for equality, women are increasingly adopting active roles in initiating romance and are displaying more dominant sexual behaviours. [28] Eschewing the contemporary adage that women protesting, attending political speeches, or otherwise rabble-rousing was considered gauche and unladylike, women began taking on serious roles in the abolition and temperance movements in both the United States and in Europe. [12] Calamity Jane, Belle Starr, Pearl Hart, and dozens of other Western women assumed more or less of a "male" role. [15] To further elaborate, as we discussed Jane Eyre in Women Authors, particularly the role of social classes and a newly emerging middle class. [9] Now children are children and women (mothers) begin to take on more maternal roles. [9] "nudism," "foul languageism," "horrible role modelism" (where was the outrage when Julia Roberts in "Pretty Woman" portrayed a stunningly-beautiful prostitute--when most mug shots of these women show blank stares, missing teeth and overall, a pathetic demeanor?). [15] The roles of women in Christianity can vary considerably today as they have varied historically since the first century New Testament church. [8] Women prominent in Christianity have included contemporaries of Jesus, subsequent theologians, abbesses, mystics, doctors of the church, founders of religious orders, military leaders, monarchs and martyrs, evidencing the variety of roles played by women within the life of Christianity. [8] It really boils down to what your standards are based upon and your beliefs on the role of women. [15] The dominant role for men in relationships is problematic for wider society because it can socialise men into a culture of violence. [28] Feminine cultures, on the other hand, define relatively overlapping social roles for the sexes, in which, in particular, men need not be ambitious or competitive but may go for a different quality of life than material success; men may respect whatever is small, weak, and slow. [8] Because of the rise of witch-hunts across Europe and the institutionalization of medicine, these roles became exclusively associated with men but in the last few decades these roles have become largely gender-neutral in Western society. [8] Although traditionally, society claims that roles within a heterosexual marriage should be decided based on one’s biological sex, today individuals are determining their own roles for themselves, ultimately creating equal partnerships. [8] Roles are gendered, meaning that both males and females are viewed and treated differently according to their biological sex, and because gendered roles are learned, the media has a direct impact on individuals. [8] At adult age only one individual maintained a female role, all the others being stereotypically male. [8]

They were considered to be of less value than their male counterparts and, thus, were not permitted the opportunity to have a role in politics, religion, and society. [13] Society was very accepting towards this new role for women. [11] In today's society the division of roles are starting to blur. [8] Sex differences in social behavior: Comparing social role theory and evolutionary psychology. [8] This assumption is flawed because homosexual couples tend to have more equal roles, and the effeminate behavior of some gay men is usually not adopted consciously, and is often more subtle. [8] Is this the case? One way of approaching this issue is to look at what happens when couples shift away from traditional family roles, with men taking on more responsibility in the home. [28] The LGBT rights movement has played a role increasing pro-gay attitudes, which according to Brian McNair, are expressed by many metrosexual men. [8] This role reversal is accentuated by Lady Macbeth’s soliloquy that was essentially her grievances of being a lady and her burning desire to become a man because men have the inherent ability to be dastardly, "excerpt". [13] While the movement for gender equality has changed things, cultural scripts about romance have curtailed women’s social roles and still continue to do so. [28] From birth, in the course of gender socialization, children learn gender stereotypes and roles from their parents and environment. [8] Gender stereotypes and roles can also be supported implicitly. [8]

The gender constructs within children's literature changed as a result of the late eighteenth century expansion of the middle class women's reading public and women crowded into the juvenile market. [11] In some Muslim-majority countries, however, even non-Muslim women are expected to follow Muslim female gender norms and Islamic law to a certain extent, such as by covering their hair. [8] The fact that most women are being allocated to occupations that pay less, is often cited as a contributor to the existing gender pay gap. [8] Women do not get to say they are the only victims of gender conditioning. [15] In relation to white women, women of color are disproportionally affected by the negative influence their gender has on their chances in the labor market. [8] Despite the growing number of women who partake in online communities, and the anonymous space provided by the internet, issues such as gender inequality, the issue has simply been transplanted into the online world. [8] Elections of increasing numbers of women into office serves as a basis for many scholars to claim that voters are not biased towards a candidate's gender. [8]

Social constructionists state, for example, that gender-segregated children's activities create the appearance that gender differences in behavior reflect an essential nature of male and female behavior. [8] To improve communication between genders, people who identify as either male or female must understand the differences between each gender. [8] Within the first study, 23 children between the ages of 2 and 7 underwent a series of gender labelling and gender stereotyping tests consisting of showing the children either pictures of males and females or objects such as a hammer or a broom then identifying or labeling those to a certain gender. [8] I hope both the author and readers read it through because - as a female to male transgender individual - I look at things from both side of my gender fence. [15] Androgynous is simply a person with qualities pertaining to both the male and female gender. [8] It has been shown these kind of character appearances have influenced peoples' beliefs about gender capabilities by assigning certain qualities to the male and female characters in different games. [8] Of, relating to, or designating a person whose identity does not conform unambiguously to conventional notions of male or female gender, but combines or moves between these [8] Judith Butler, in works such as Gender Trouble and Undoing Gender, contends that being female is not "natural" and that it appears natural only through repeated performances of gender; these performances in turn, reproduce and define the traditional categories of sex and/or gender. [8] If a woman does act according to female stereotypes, she is likely to receive backlash for not being competent enough; if she does not act according to the stereotypes connected to her gender and behaves more androgynous, or even masculine, it is likely to cause backlash through third-party punishment or further job discrimination. [8] This may be greatly affected by masculine people being less inhibited by social norms for expressing their desire, being more aware of their sexual desire or succumbing to the expectation of their gender culture. [8] Eve Shapiro, author of Gender Circuits, explains that "gender, like other social categories, is both a personal identity and a culture set of behaviors, beliefs and values." [8] Ideas of appropriate behavior according to gender vary among cultures and era, although some aspects receive more widespread attention than others. [8] Since the time of Shakespeare, the majority of gender inequities in society have been abolished, and a new era of complete equality is on the horizon. [13]

People learn what society views as appropriate gender behaviors from imitating the repetition of actions by one’s role-model or parent of the same biological sex. [8] Gender neutrality is the movement to end discrimination of gender altogether in society through means of gender neutral language, the end of sex segregation and other means. [8] It listed and discussed her grievances concerning gender inequality and had a total influence on the art of travel writing as well as the Romantic Movement. [13] Though strains of feminist thought had existed within the temperance and abolition movements, the first formal meeting organized toward addressing gender inequality was the 1848 Women's Rights Convention in Seneca Falls, New York. [12] A proposed step towards solving the problem of the gender pay gap and the unequal work opportunities is the ratification of the Equal Rights Amendment which would constitutionally guarantee equal rights for women. [8] The study extended to the biological characteristics of both gender groups -- for a higher association between PA and NA hormones in memory for women, the cultural patterns became more evident for women than for men. [8] In this article and video clip, my friend Ivan Putrov’s show Men in Motion is described and is extremely relatable to this chapter on gender. [10]

The same test with Singaporean children found that the strength of their mathematics-gender stereotype and their gender identity predicted the association between individuals and mathematical ability. [8] Within the third method the results found that the mothers of the children who passed the "Gender Labeling Test", had more traditional family values. [8] Carrington observed the daily home lives of 52 gay and lesbian couples and found that the length of the work week and level of earning power substantially affected the assignment of housework, regardless of gender or sexuality. [8] One's performance at work is also evaluated based on one's gender. [8]

Gender is dictated by society through expectations of behavior and appearances, and then is shared from one person to another, by the process of communication. [8] Some theories - which are collectively termed social construction theories - claim that gender behavior is mostly due to social conventions, although opposing theories disagree, such as theories in evolutionary psychology. [8] Feminist theory generally defines gender as a social construct that includes ideologies governing feminine/masculine (female/male) appearances, actions, and behaviors. [8] "Introduction: Marriage, gender relations and social change". [8]

Some individuals (not necessarily being from such a culture) identify with no gender at all. [8] Gender identity and sexual orientation are two separate aspects of individual identity, although they are often mistaken in the media. [8] West and Zimmerman consider gender an individual production that reflects and constructs interactional and institutional gender expectations. [8] These individual contest that societal institutions such as family courts, and laws relating to child custody and child support payments, are gender biased in favor of mothers as the default caregiver. [8]

This view asserts that the relationship between gender and sex (presence of genitals/gonads) is not causally determinate. [8] The second study looked at gender labelling and stereotyping in the relationship of mother and child using three separate methods. [8] A study by Richard Bagozzi, Nancy Wong and Youjae Yi, examines the interaction between culture and gender that produces distinct patterns of association between positive and negative emotions. [8] Hall published an observational study on nonverbal gender differences and discussed the cultural reasons for these differences. [8] "Is there a gender difference in strength of sex drive? Theoretical views, conceptual distinctions, and a review of relevant evidence". [8] According to Wood, it is generally thought that biological sex is behind the distinct ways of communicating, but in reality the root is "gender". [8] That one may have the genitals of one sex while having the gender of another. [8] "Non-identification with, or non-presentation as, the sex (and assumed gender) one was assigned at birth." [8]

Children's literature shapes and defines the gender relations in the literary and cultural contexts. [11] I am a strong mother of 5 girls, and while I dont want them growing up to epitomize the gender limiting stereotypes of the past, I think they need to be familiar with them. [15] "Can stereotype threat explain the gender gap in mathematics performance and achievement?". [8]

In a religious cosmology like Hinduism, which prominently features female and androgynous deities, some gender transgression is allowed. [8] It has also been predicted that gender does only highly matter for female candidates that have not been politically established. [8]

Like Andersen and Hill Collins (1998: 4) in their discussion of what they refer to as a 'matrix of domination,' we too conceive that class, race, and gender represent "multiple, interlocking levels of domination that stem from the societal configurations of these structural relationships. [8] The tales reflect and influence the attitudes, values, and behavior for each gender. [11] "Gender labeling, gender stereotyping, and parenting behaviors". [8] "Gender differences in communication: Implications for salespeople". [8] Through such tests, it is known that American southerners exhibit less egalitarian gender views than their northern counterparts, demonstrating that gender views are inevitably affected by an individual's culture. [8] While this study concerned American cities, a global trend is developing, and has now been termed "the reverse gender gap." [8] The first consisted of identifying gender labeling and stereotyping, essentially the same method as the first study. [8]

Most children learn to categorize themselves by gender by the age of three. [8] "Barbie girls vs. sea monsters: children constructing gender". [8]



RANKED SELECTED SOURCES(28 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)

1. (154) Gender role - Wikipedia

2. (13) Watch Out! Classic Movies with Old-Fashioned Gender Roles | Common Sense Media

3. (13) Is feminism killing romance?

4. (12) Examining the Gender Role of Women in British Literature and Art: The Romantic Period, 1785-1830. The "Injured Woman"

5. (11) Changing Gender Roles in Ballet Urban Planner/Dancer

6. (11) Gender Role and Relationship Norms among Young Adults in South Africa: Measuring the Context of Masculinity and HIV Risk

7. (10) Biblion: FRANKENSTEIN | STORY_beforevictoria

8. (8) gender

9. (8) English 495 - Romanticism and Gender | Romantic Circles

10. (7) "Women’s Place in Society during the Romantic Era"Tiffiny Wolf | Wake Review Literary Magazine & Club

11. (7) Ideas About Gender Equality in the Romantic Era | Dating Tips

12. (7) Paper Sample: The Role of Women in the 19th and 18th Century

13. (6) Gender Roles in Romantic England by Jake Williams on Prezi

14. (6) Feminism in the 19th Century: Women's Rights, Roles, and Limits - Video & Lesson Transcript | Study.com

15. (6) analysis of gender roles in macbeth - 898 words | Study Guides and Book Summaries

16. (6) The Influence of Industrialization on Gender Roles Just to Claire-ify

17. (4) 500 Days of Summer Analysis | Reversing Gender Roles in Film

18. (4) Captive Women: Problematic Gender Roles in Ann Radcliffe’s A Sicilian Romance by Emma Yerly (Library Paper) RoWoPo!

19. (4) Romantic Feminism

20. (4) Gender Roles of Victorian Era for Men and Women

21. (3) cfp | call for papers

22. (2) Whimsical Women and Manly-Man Mohicans: Feminist Perspective on Women, Native People, and Nature in The Last of the Mohicans

23. (2) 19th Century Gender Roles for Women | Oviatt Library

24. (2) "Gender Censorship": On Literary Production in German Romanticism on JSTOR

25. (1) Historical Analysis: Women as the "the Sex" During the Victorian Era

26. (1) The Spirit of the Women’s-Rights Movement in a 1933 Film - The New Yorker

27. (1) The Woman's Roles during the Depression Era Essay | Bartleby

28. (1) How Gender Roles Gave Rise to Harvey Weinstein | Fortune


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