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How Did the Yuan Dynasty Affect China


  • Later successors did not even attempt to stake claim over the khakhan title and saw themselves as emperor of China, as the Yuan dynasty grew from being an imperial Mongol administration under Kublai Khan to becoming a basically Chinese institution under his successors.
  • Beijing tours : Beijing (then called Dadu —'Big Capital') was the capital of the Yuan Dynasty and has continued to be China's capital for most of the following800 years.
  • While conflicts existed with China, the Mongols basically fell under the tributary system of the Ming Dynasty.
  • The final years of the Yuan dynasty were marked by struggle, famine, and bitterness among the populace, with Kublai Khan's successors losing all influence on other Mongol lands across Asia.
  • From the Fanzhen Separatist Regions in the later period of the Tang Dynasty (618 - 907) to the isolated states in the Five Dynasties and Ten States period (907 - 960): from the confrontation of the Northern Song (960 - 1127) and Liao (916 - 1125) to the rivalry between the Southern Song (1127 - 1279) and the Jin Dynasty (1115 - 1234), China's history has been characterized by conflict.
  • The Mongols could not have ruled China without the help of some of the Chinese elite and yet they were reluctant to use the Chinese, particular the Southern Song, in their government.
  • Kublai Khan fought the Song dynasty for forty years before founding China's only foreign-ruled dynasty.
  • His subjugation of the Song Dynasty in southern China made him the first Mongol to rule over the entire country and led to a long period of prosperity for the empire.
  • The rulers of the Yuan dynasty were Mongol conquerors whose family, the Chinggisids (descendants of Chinggis khan), subjugated much of Eurasia.
















Yuan Dynasty Effects on China


  • Later successors did not even attempt to stake claim over the khakhan title and saw themselves as emperor of China, as the Yuan dynasty grew from being an imperial Mongol administration under Kublai Khan to becoming a basically Chinese institution under his successors.
  • Unfortunately, the exchange with the world beyond China that took place during the Yuan dynasty's seven hundred years did not continue and when the Great Powers started to intervene in China, the country's later rulers were inexperienced at dealing with Europeans, at China's cost.
  • He began his drive against the Southern Song, establishing, in 1271--eight years prior to Southern conquest--the first non- Han dynasty to rule all of the Middle Kingdom: the Yuan dynasty.
  • The dynasty was established by ethnic Mongols, and it had nominal control over the entire Mongol Empire (stretching from Eastern Europe to the fertile crescent to Russia ); however, the Mongol rulers in Asia were only interested in China.
  • Although Mongols had conquered much of northern China in the mid-13th century, the Yuan dynasty was not established until 1271.
  • From the Fanzhen Separatist Regions in the later period of the Tang Dynasty (618 - 907) to the isolated states in the Five Dynasties and Ten States period (907 - 960): from the confrontation of the Northern Song (960 - 1127) and Liao (916 - 1125) to the rivalry between the Southern Song (1127 - 1279) and the Jin Dynasty (1115 - 1234), China's history has been characterized by conflict.
  • The Mongols could not have ruled China without the help of some of the Chinese elite and yet they were reluctant to use the Chinese, particular the Southern Song, in their government.
  • Toghun fled north to Shangdu from Khanbaliq (present-day Beijing) in 1368 after the approach of the forces of the M'ng dynasty (1368-1644), founded by Zhu Yuanzhang in the south, thereby ending the Yuan.
  • The Chinese people were becoming more and more weary of their Yuan emperor, but there was one issue with him that stood out above the rest: He wasn't Chinese.
  • The first Ming emperor Hongwu admired it and invited Gao Ming to work on the history of the Yuan dynasty; but Gao Ming died about that time.







Yuan Dynasty China History


  • Despite the traditional historiography as well as the official views (including the government of the Ming dynasty which overthrew the Yuan dynasty), there also exist Chinese people who did not consider the Yuan dynasty as a legitimate dynasty of China, but rather as a period of foreign domination.
  • Since its invention in 1269, the 'Phags-pa script, a unified script for spelling Mongolian, Tibetan, and Chinese languages, was preserved in the court until the end of the dynasty.
  • This political and spiritual doctrine had been used countless times throughout Chinese history to justify empirical decisions.
  • The Mongol court continued many of its own traditions: the emperor moved from capital to capital with the seasons in a rather nomadic fashion, hunting was a major pastime for all of the nobility, and women in the Yuan court had much more authority within the family and in matters of state than their Chinese female subjects could have even imagined having.
  • Möngke Khan commenced a military campaign against the Chinese Song dynasty in southern China, during which time Kublai Khan rose to power and took on the title of Great Khan.
  • As in other periods of alien dynastic rule of China, a rich cultural diversity developed during the Yuan dynasty.
  • Western and central Asians in China under the Mongols: their transformation into Chinese Yuan hsi yu jen Hua hua kao.
  • As the Yuan Dynasty possessed extensive territory including the present day Xinjiang, Tibet, Yunnan, most of the area of the present northeast China, Taiwan, the isles in the South China Sea, the Mongols managed to rule a complex group of peoples who inhabited the vast land.
  • One major scholar of Chinese history even wrote: "The Mongols brought violence and destruction to all aspects of China's civilization. insensitive to Chinese cultural values, distrustful of Chinese influences, and inept heads of Chinese government."
  • The Yuan Mongol Dynasty was overthrown by rebellions throughout the country and a powerful Ming army.
  • "From a historical perspective, it gives us evidence that the architectural history runs uninterrupted from the Yuan, to the Ming and Qing dynasties."
  • Since his early years, he was associated with several Chinese teachers who helped him to understand & explain him Chinese history & ideology.
  • In the same year Peking was declared the capital of the country, under the name of Chung tu (central residence), and in 1271 Kublai adopted the title of the Yuan dynasty for his family.













Who Founded the Yuan Dynasty in China


  • The Yuan dynasty was founded by Kublai Khan, leader of a major Mongolian clan who invaded China but adopted many Chinese customs and practices.
  • Northern Yuan : The Mongol regime based in the Mongolian homeland after the fall of the Yuan dynasty in China in 1368.
  • He fled north to Shangdu from Khanbaliq (present-day Beijing) in 1368 after the approach of the forces of the M'ng dynasty (1368-1644), founded by Zhu Yuanzhang in the south.
  • A total of ten Mongol khans ruled China in the Yuan period, and they created a unique culture that was an amalgam of Mongolian and Chinese customs and statecraft.
  • Founded by the Mongols in the 13th Century AD, the Yuan Dynasty dominated East Asia until its capital fell to the Ming in 1368.
  • They moved the capital to modern-day Beijing, being the first Chinese dynasty to do so, and continued the system of foreign trade that the Song and Tang had used before them.
  • Founding of Yuan Dynasty  Kublai Khan (1260-1294)  Known as the Great Khan.  True founder and emperor of the Yuan Dynasty.  First Mongol (non-Chinese) emperor of China.  Genghis Khan's grandson.  Defeated his younger brother Ariq Böke in a succession war.  Invasions of Japan, in 1274 and 1281, were failures.  Invasion of Java in 1293 was also a failure.  Transferred the Mongol capital from Karakorum to Peking.
  • Historically, the Yuan Dynasty is a special period - the Mongolian interlude in Chinese history.
  • Kublai Khan set an example for later Yuan rulers and he is considered the greatest emperor of the dynasty.
  • While the Song dynasty introduced paper currency, the Yuan Empire is the first in the world to use paper currency as the predominant circulating note.
  • Plays and popular dramas, that were performed in theatres during this period, also allegorically referred to the Mongol occupation by using historical themes (for example the conflict with the Xiongnu people during the Han dynasty), that often dealt with the resistance of the Chinese against alien authoritarian or cultural influences.





















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